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The Main Features of Pronunciation and The Physiology of Pro
Transcript of The Main Features of Pronunciation and The Physiology of Pro
The Physiology of Pronunciation
The Main Features of Pronunciation
A phoneme is a basic unit of a language's phonology, which is combined with other phonemes to form meaningful units, morphemes. The phoneme can be described as "The smallest contrastive linguistic unit which may bring about a change of meaning"
Sounds Produced with some obstruction/restriction to the air flow
/p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /tʃ/ /dʒ/ /k/ /g/
/f/ /v/ /θ/ /ð/ /s/ /z/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/
/m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /h/ /l/ /r/ /w/ /j/
Sounds may be voiced or unvoiced (voiceless). Voiced sound occur when the vocal cords are larynx are vibrated
From a phonetic point of view, vowels are articulated with a relatively open configuration of the vocal tract = the air goes freely
From a phonological point of view, vowels are units of the sound system wich typically occupy the middle of the syllable
/i:/ /ɪ/ /ʊ/ /u:/
/ɜ/ /ɔ:/ /æ/ /ʌ/
Monophthongs or "pure vowels".
They are called this way because they are produced with a single perceived auditory quality by a movement of the tongue towards one the positions on the mouth.
They are vowels where 2 vowel quality can be perceived. They are also called "glides" because it consist of a movement from one vowel sound to another within the same syllable.
/eə/ /ʊə/ /ɪə/
/aɪ/ /eɪ/ /ɔɪ/
In order to study how something works it if often useful to break it down into its constituents parts.
It is also called Prosodic Feature and its a speech feature such as stress, tone, or word juncture that accompanies or is added over consonants and vowels; these features are not limited to single sounds but often extend over syllables, words, or phrases.
Teacher also need to consider how the sound we use come about, and to study the physiology which allows us to use those sounds.
We can learn to use our speech organs in new ways in order to produce learnt sounds in a foreign language, or to lose sounds from our own language which are not appropriate in the foreign language.
Stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence. Stress is typically signaled by such properties as increased loudness and vowel length, full articulation of the vowel, and changes in pitch.
With regards to individual words, we can identify and teach word stress. Usually one syllable in a word will sound more prominent than the other, as in 'paper, or 'bottle. Also the stress in words are usually indicated in dictionaries.
With regards utterance, stress gives rhythm to speech. one or more words within each utterance are selected by the speaker as worthy of stressing, and thus made prominent to the listener.
Intonation is the ay in which the pitch of the voice goes up and down in the course of an utterance. Utterance stress and intonation patterns are often linked to the communication of meaning.