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Psychology Chapter 4

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Julisa Silva

on 12 May 2014

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Transcript of Psychology Chapter 4

Psychology
Chapter 4 - Adolescence

Physical Development
Sexual maturation, or
puberty
, is the biological event that signifies the end of childhood and the point when reproduction is first possible.
Girls
; begin puberty
8-10
.
Boys
; begin puberty
9-16
.
Sexual Development
Adolescence is the time when an individual
develops attitudes about sex and expectations about the gender role he/she will fill
.
Section 2 - Personal Development
During adolescence, a
sense of identity
and
self-esteem
are important and depend heavily on friends.
Transition from childhood to adulthood involves
changes in patterns of reasoning and moral thinking
adjustments in personality and sexual behavior
Moral Development
Lawrence Kolhberg;
Many people never progress beyond
Stage 4
(law seen as a moral rule and is obeyed because of a strong belief in established authority) in their moral thinking.
Adolescence
- a time period of mixed abilities and responsibilities in which childlike behavior changes to adultlike behavior.
Section 1 - Physical and Sexual Development
Initiation Rites
There are many
initiation rites
, or rites of passage, that mark admission into adulthood.
Theories of Adolescence
Controversy concerning the nature of adolescence.
G. Stanley Hall;
adolescence represents a transitional stage of "
great storm and stress
."
confused/ troubled/ highly frustrated
Theories of Adolescence
Margaret Mead
;
argues that "storm and stress," is a
by-product of an industrialized society
.
culture
might play a role in adolescent development.
Developmental Tasks
Developmental Tasks adolescents must master
(full list on p. 95):
accepting one's physical make-up
acquiring a masculine/ feminine gender role
deciding on/ preparing for/ entering a vocation
preparing for marriage and family
The Growth Spurt
The
growth spurt
is a rapid increase in weight and height.
Girls peak at 12.
Boys peak at 14.
Menarche and Spermarche
Between 10 and 17, a
girl
has her first menstrual period, or
menarche
.
Between 12 and 13,
boys
achieve their first ejaculation, or
spermarche
.
Asynchrony
Period of adolescent growth can be awkward for both boys and girls because of
asynchrony
- the condition of uneven growth/ maturation of bodily parts.
Reactions to Growth
Most tend to evaluate themselves in terms of their
culture's body ideal
.
Reactions to Growth
Sexual Attitudes
The increase of sexual awareness/ activity has raised many questions over
the role of family, religion, and government
in providing information/ guidance about sex.
Abstinence
- the choice to avoid premarital sex.
unwanted pregnancies
STD's
Cognitive Development
Thinking patterns of adults emerge around 11/ 12 -
Abstract thoughts
Introspection
Rationalization
- a process whereby an individual seeks to explain an often unpleasant emotion or behavior in a way that will preserve his/her self-esteem.
Cognitive Development
Adolescents tend to be very
idealistic
as a result, they can grow
rebellious
.
impatient
"
Messiah Complex
" - belief that they can save the world from evil
Cognitive Development
Dr. Elkind; problems adolescents develop -
Finding fault with authority figures
Argumentativeness
Indecisiveness
Hypocrisy
Self-consciousness
Invulnerability
Differences in growth affect the
personality
of young adolescents.
Those who mature early have an advantage
Why does physical growth have such profound psychological effect?
Self-fulfilling prophecy
.
Moral Development
A person's moral development depends on
the kind of relationship an individual has with
his/her parents
and
significant others.
Moral Development
Most changes in moral development occur in
college
, when an individual is away from home and experiencing different cultures and ideas.
Lawrence Kohlberg
Identity Development
Erikson; the
establishment of identity
is key to adolescent development.

Identity Crisis
To achieve a sense of themselves, adolescents must go through an
identity crisis
- a period of inner conflict during which adolescents worry intensely about who they are.
Identity Crisis
Factors that contribute to the onset of the crisis -
physiological changes
cognitive developments
awakening sexual drives
possibility of intimacy with opposite sex
Identity Crisis
Adolescents face crisis of
identity formation
vs.
identity confusion
.
Task - to become a unique individual with a valued sense of self in society.
Identity Crisis
An
identity
forms when the adolescent can resolve issues such as -
occupation choice
a set of values to live by
development of a sexual identity
Confusion
in this process is normal
Identity Crisis
Marcia
; crises arises because individuals must make
commitments
on such matters as occupation, religion, and political orientation.
Four attempts to achieve a sense of identity -
Identity Moratorium Adolescents
Seriously considering the issues but have
not made a commitment
on any of the important matters ahead.
Identity Foreclosure Adolescents
Firm commitment on issues based
not on their own choice
but on the suggestion of others.
Identity Confused or Diffused Adolescents
Not yet given any serious thought to making any decisions and have
no clear sense of identity
.
Identity Achievement Adolescents
Considered many possibilities and have
freely committed themselves to occupations
and other important life matters.
James Marcia
Peterson; argues that crisis is
not the norm
for adolescents.
cause - a
change in external circumstances
rather than an internal biological clock.
Social Learning View
Social Learning Theory
Bandura;
social learning theory - states that human development is a continuous process that occurs as humans interact with others.
no "crisis"
Social Learning Theory
Mead; also stresses
importance of social environment
in development
identity crisis is not a universal phenomenon
Albert Bandura
Samoan Children
Conclusion
Personality Development in Adolescents

How a person develops a sense of self + how person develops relationships
with others
Section 3 - Social Development
Adolescents - must find a
new role
in the family. Parents not always accepting of this transition.
Less
dependent on Family,
more
dependent on Peers.
The Role of the Family
Principal developmental task for adolescents is becoming
independent
of their families.
Conflict
- desire to be independent coupled with fear of failure
can cause
unpredictable behavior
"rebellion"
The Role of Peers
Teenagers spend much of their time with friends.
Rely on each other to
create/find identity
.
School Groups
Childhood - defined by sex
Adolescence - class lines
The Role of Peers
Popularity = good looks + personality
Athletic ability

also a factor
The Circle of Life
The Role of Peers
Clique
- a group within a group
Cliques serve several imp. functions:
Fulfills need of closeness with others
Identity formation
Achieve self-confidence
Develop a sense of independence
Experiment with new roles
The Breakfast Club
Role of Peers
Con of Cliques
Conformity
-acting in accordance with group norms
Pressure to conform can cause teen to violate their morals/ values
The Role of Peers
Peers influence

fashion
music
Parents influence
Marriage
Religion
Education Ideas
Given the array of changes during adolescence, temporary
psychological difficulties
are expected.
Although rare,
mental illness/ suicide
amongst teens has
tripled
over the past 50 years.
Difficulties During Adolescence
Difficulties during Adolescence
Illusion of invulnerability
may cause acts of
juvenile delinquency
and
risky behavior
.
"Beyond Scared Straight"
Teenage Depression and Suicide
Triggers of
depression
in adolescents -
Loss of loved ones
sense of security
deprivation of emotional support
Teenage Depression and Suicide
Identifying depressed teens -
Angry
Engage in rebellious activities
Withdrawal
Drug/ Alcohol abuse
Getting help -
Communication
Seek Professional Help
Palmetto Counseling
- Sumter, SC
803-254-9767
palmettocounseling.com
http://www.allaboutcounseling.com/crisis_hotlines.htm
Eating Disorders
Pressures of adolescence
can lead to development of an eating disorder.
low self-esteem, feelings of helplessness, and intense dissatisfaction with the way they look
Anorexia Nervosa
- fear of gaining weight that results in self-starvation
distorted body image
Bulimia Nervosa
- binging and purging
depression, anxiety, mood swings
intense desire to find approval
Section 4 - Gender Roles and Differences
Do children
learn gender identities
or are they
born innately different
?
Gender Identity
vs. Gender Role
Gender Identity
- the sex group to which an individual biologically belongs.
Male/Female
Gender Roles
- the set of behaviors that society considers appropriate for each sex
Gender roles give social meaning to Gender Identity
Is "Gender" something we "do" ?
Gender Stereotypes
Gender Stereotypes
- prejudiced opinions and attitudes concerning the way men/ women should behave
Androgynous
Bem
; asserts that, due to changing standards of acceptable gender roles, people should accept new
androgynous
roles - combining or blending traditional male and female characteristics.
The Eurythmics
Bem Sex Role Inventory
The Bem Sex-Role Inventory
is a measure of masculinity-femininity and gender roles. It assesses how people identify themselves psychologically.
http://garote.bdmonkeys.net/bsri.html
Masculine?

Feminine?
Androgyny? Undifferentiated?
must display approximately equal numbers of female and male traits
A person (male or female) who displays few, if any, traits, behaviors or characteristics that society associates with the male gender role or with the female gender role
Body Dysmorphic Disorder - A Cultural Epidemic?
Gender Differences
Are differences between genders
real
or
imagined
?
Gender Differences in Personality
Aggression
(hostile/ destructive behavior)
Females; more verbal
Males; more physical
Males have lower levels of
serotonin
, which has been associated with higher levels of aggression
Gender Differences in Personality
Communication Styles
Men more talkative than women
Women use more
hedges
("kind of," "you know," "like")
disclaimers
("I may be wrong," "I'm not sure")
tag questions
at the end of each sentence, ("you know?" or "okay?")
Origins of Gender Differences
How do differences in genders develop?
Argument -
biological/ environmental
?
Biological Theory
Emphasizes role of
anatomy, hormones
, and
brain organization.
Differences in gender result of behaviors that evolved from early men and women.
Psychoanalytical Theory
Freud;
3-5 years old
when a
child identifies with a parent of the same sex
, gender identity results.
Social Learning Theory
Children learn their gender roles by
observing and imitating
such models as their parents, peers, and teachers.
In turn, these models reward certain behaviors in boys/ girls.
Cognitive-Developmental Theory
Children acquire gender roles by interacting with their environment and thinking about those experiences.
Child must first see him/herself as a male/ female. The child will then acquire preferences consistent with his or her perceived gender.
Eventually, the child will develop a
gender schema
- a mental picture of how males and females should think and behave.
Changing Gender Roles
Roles of women/ men in society are changing. In turn, this effects their gender roles.
Full transcript