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Topic 1: Conceptualization of social sciences
Transcript of Topic 1: Conceptualization of social sciences
There is no exact definition of what knowledge is. There is no exact definition of what knowledge is.
there is five types of knowledge:
The French Revolution was a social and political movement that emerged in 1789 and began a new political era in Europe. France had an absolutist monarch and strong economic problems due to the nobility’s expense and had waged wars against England. Additionally there was a marked social division with a pyramidal structure very rigid.
Positivism, evolutionism and consolidation of social science
In XIX century, after some revolutionary struggles and intellectual progress, it were conditions for social sciences emerge, seeking to explain the behavioral science and social phenomena.
The word epistemology comes from the Greek word episteme that means knowledge and logos that means study or theory therefore epistemology is the theory of knowledge
Classification of science
According to its object of study, science can be classified into formal and factual.
Topic 2: Brief History of social sciences
Rene Descartes, began what is known as rationalism that is a thought system in which reason is the main source of knowledge.
Social research methodologies
It is important that for its study it use scientific criteria to reach valid conclusions in making decisions
induitive & empirical
induitive: It is the kind of knowledge you acquire through senses
Magic religious & phiophical
Magic religious: It is the knowledge based on beliefs or faith that comes from books, prophets, divinities or sacred objects.
Knowledge that is constantly looking for laws and principles explaining phenomena through verification and experimentation.
The formal are the sciences that study conceptual entities and its relationships
Factual sciences are the ones that study social and natural facts.
Experimental sciences and social sciences
The object of study refers to the field of reality that is being investigated and method refers to steps carried out for the study.
a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence using inductive reasoning. This method was developed by an English philosopher called Francis Bacon who sought science to benefit industry, agriculture and trade.
It is a philosophical movement that affirms that the sensitive experience and perception are the channels for building knowledge.
arises in the XVII century, and tell us that the only source of knowledge is human reason.
Some of its main accomplishments were:
Abolition of the absolutist monarchy.
Term of the privileges of the clergy and aristocrats.
Ending of servitude and feudal.
The idea of equal pay of taxes.
Redistribution of wealth and property.
Division between church and state.
More democratic education.
The industrial revolution
Began in England in the XVIII century and spread during the XIX century. At the same time Britain had become in the most industrialized and wealthier country. It produced half of the world’s coal and manufactured products.
Positivism emerged from the radical empiricism of Hume who argued that a claim makes sense only if it is true by definition or verifiable by experience.
Evolutionary theory developed by the English man Charles Darwin served as the basis for the English man Herbert Spencer developed the theory of social evolutionism analyzing society as an organism.
Materialism, Rationalism & Empircism
Rationalism: Is the method that states that you can know reality through thought without any prior experience.
Realism, idealism & positivism
idealism: Assumes that objects cannot exist without a mind that is aware of them.
The goals of social science research can be divided into two groups:
Those who seek to know and/or produce new knowledge related to social phenomena.
Those who want to answer questions that arise from a concrete reality.
quantitative, qualitative & mixed
Quantitative method: Is carried out to test a hypothesis through the data collection and statistical analysis.
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
empirical: It is the knowledge based on experience.
philosophical: It is a general knowledge that creates categories and concepts
The formal are mathematics and logic.
The scientific method includes defining the problem
It was a philosophical movement of the XVIII century, in which intellectuals used ideas of the Scientific Revolution to examine some aspects of life.
capitalist & socialism
capitalism, an economic system based on industrial production.
socialism an economic system in which society, usually the government, owns and controls most of the means of production.
materialism: Is the method that states that everything is matter and that the only reality that exists is material reality.
Empircism: States that experience is necessary to know something.
realism: States that ideas exist whether are thought or not.
positivism: States that all knowledge must be based on sensitive experience.
logical positivsm, phenomenology & analytic
logical positivsm: Its thought is born of empiricism and is known as total empiricism based on logic to avoid ambiguity.
phenomenology: Proposes that consciousness involves a relationship with the object and keep the essence of the phenomenon.
analytic: States that everything that can be thought can be expressed by language and the most important function of language is to describe facts.
Has as object of investigation the historical being as the knowledge that can be accomplished is historically mediated.
Quantitative metho: Is carried out to test a hypothesis through the data collection and statistical analysis.
Mixed method: Implies to link qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study to answer a specific problem.
exploratory, descriptive & correlational
Exploratory design: Seeks to examine a topic or a problem that has been little studied.
Descriptive designs: Describe the most important characteristics of the object of study, whether a person, a group, community, or phenomenon of analysis.
Correlational designs: Seek the relationship or degree of association between two or more variables or concepts.
explanatory, supported & Ethnographic
Explanatory designs: Respond to the causes of phenomena or events and focuses on demonstrating why an event occurs and in what conditions is presented.
Supported designs: Seek to generate a theorem that explains at a conceptual level an action in a specific area.
Ethnographic design:Studies groups, organizations, communities or cultural elements such as education, politics and history.
narrative & action research
Narrative design:The researchers collects information about people lives and then describes and analyze them.
Action research designs: Seek to solve everyday problems immediately and improve concrete actions.
The object of study of history are all done by man in society in a time in society and particular historical space and which affects or influences a large number of people or society as a whole.
hipotetical deductive method, inductive & historical
It is the method that establishes the hypothesis are invented creatively and have their origin from a problem that is reflected through a question.
It is the method by which hypotheses are obtained by observing the facts, meaning that laws are generalized from observable statements.
It is the method that investigates human society as a result of productive activity.
Economics and political science
Economy is related to the social interactions that occur since the goods are produced until they are consumed
physiocracy,classic economy, scientific socialism & neoclassical
physiocracy: theory that made the first attempt to systematize the economy.
economy: This theory proposes that the State should not intervene in the way markets work and suggests that the pursuit of economic gain drives companies to produce more.
scientific: This theory considers work as a source of wealth, is a critique of capitalism and the bourgeoisie.
The object of study of economic is the optimal utilization of natural and human resources to achieve a society that meets human needs, such as food, clothing, shelter, health, education, recreation, facilities, etc.
Political science comes from the Greek politike relating to citizens.