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History and Traditions of British Parliament
Transcript of History and Traditions of British Parliament
-In 1215 King John was forced to agree with the Magna Carta which insisted he listened to barons.
-The Provisions of Oxford was a proposal for regular meeting of parliament. -In 1376 the public did not want the King speaking for the public.
-They appointed a speaker for the commons.
Good Parliament- in 1376 when they prosecuted some of the King’s corrupt ministers.
Wonderful Parliament-the Commons forced the King to dismiss some of his ministers in 1386.
Merciless Parliament- Two years after the Wonderful years the parliament condemned a number of those ministers to death. -During the middle ages 2 knights from each of the 37 counties were elected.
-Originally only people who owned land worth 40 shillings could vote for the knights.
-During the Wars of the Roses the knights mainly supported the rich land owners. Westminster Hall During Queen Elizabeth I's reign, a member of parliament: Peter Wentworth argued that the Commons should have freedom of discussion; to discuss what they wish without retaliation from the Queen. Black Rod is a senior officer in the House of Lords. He is responsible for security, controlling access to and maintaining order within the House.
Black Rod's role at the State Opening of Parliament is one of the most well-known images of Parliament.
Black Rod is sent from the Lords Chamber to the Commons Chamber to summon MPs to hear the Queen's Speech. Traditionally the door of the Commons is slammed in Black Rod's face to symbolise the Commons independence.
He then bangs three times on the door with the rod. The door to the Commons Chamber is then opened and all MPs – talking loudly- Follow Black Rod back to the Lords to hear the Queen's Speech. The Mace of the House of Commons rests in the centre of the chamber when parliament is in session. The Mace represents the Queen and MUST be in the room in order for legal decisions to be made. The Monarchy is a very big part of British Parliament.
The role of the Monarch in the enactment of legislation just formal, although The Queen has the right to be consulted, to encourage and to warn through regular audiences with her ministers. Modern History Dragging The Speaker
Of The House of Commons When a new speaker is elected to the house of commons, his fellow MP's physically drag him to the chair. This tradition has its root in the speakers function to communicate the commons opinion to the monarch. If the monarch didn't agree with the speaker, he could potentially be dragged out of the commons to his death. Un-Parliamentary Language When in parliament, all MP's are forbidden to use language that would offend the dignity of British Parliament. This includes swearing, and most importantly accusing an MP of being dishonest. Some of the words banned in the past, and have been deemed parliamentary include "guttersnipe" , "hooligan" and "git". In the past, the Mace has been at the centre
of action, including being thrown, snatched, and wrestled from MP's protesting Parliament's decisions. Any laws that get passed through legislation must
be given royal assent, although royal assent has not
been denied since 1707. The Woolsack The Woolsack is the seat of the Lord Speaker in the House of Lords Chamber. The Woolsack is a large, wool-stuffed cushion or seat covered with red cloth. Although originally stuffed with English wool as a reminder of England's traditional source of wealth, today it is stuffed with wool from each of the countries of the commonwealth, to symbolize commonwealth unity! The Reform Act of 1832 Pocket Boroughs were a constituency controlled by a single family or person who owned the land. These families would often bribe their small towns populations so they would elect their representatives (also known as Burgesses) to Parliament
Problem: Representatives in Parliament wanted to please their towns more than their constituents. Reasons for Reform: Records of Parliament Changes in record keeping in the 16th and 17th centuries In the late 15th century Parliament gained own officials and organization. In this time of change, the original acts of parliament were held in the Clerks position opposed to the Chancery Archives in London.Original Acts: Acts passed in Parliament are now kept by the Parliamentary Archives in the Victoria Tower of the Palace of Westminster, and the document now includes more modern Acts of Parliament. Example: The Journals. Since 1510 the House of lord’s business, votes and decisions have been recorded, called the Lord’s Journal.The Commons Journal is the journal for the Lower House These journals are official records of Parliament. In 1834 there was a fire at the Old Palace of Westminster, leaving few buildings remaining of Parliament's home.This Hall was used for major law courts but not parliamentary meetings initially. Current Day Meetings Parliament meets in the new Palace of Westminster, which was mostly rebuilt after the fire. The House of Lords and the House of Commons meet in separate chambers, but both within Westminster Reformation Government 1529-1536: Henry VIII’s Reformation sat, which was created to change the nature of British Parliament so he could divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Power Shift Made laws regarding doctrine and religious practice; which was originally under the church’s authority. Parliament became capable of doing everything and holding overall authority. Pope to the English Crown The new parliament passed laws, transferring religious authority from the Pope to the English Crown. This allowed Parliament to have control over churches wealth and building and settle religious doctrine. Constitutional Change The king realized all power was strongest when expressed through Parliament Free Discussions 16th and 17th century: members of parliament viewed themselves as the monarch’s servants and Parliament a place to address local matters. Edward's Parliament -2 representatives from each county and two from each city or town to attend each meeting.
Since 1327, after the removal of Edward's son, parliament has included representatives of the people.
-It began to include three bodies: Lords, Commons and Monarch. The Black Rod -An usher found in many commonwealth countries, including Canada.
-They introduce members of the house and call the house to service.
-The latest Black Rod in the UK was Lieutenant General David Leakey.