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The World Between the Wars: Revolutions, Depression, and Authoritarian Response
Transcript of The World Between the Wars: Revolutions, Depression, and Authoritarian Response
October- Bolsheviks hold a "bloodless coup" and gain power. Civil war between "Reds" (Bolsheviks) and "Whites" (anti-Bolsheviks) breaks out. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Bolsheviks make peace with the Germans, Austro-Hungarians and Ottomans, ending Russian (Soviet) involvement in WWI.
Soviets give up big chunks of land. 1918 1921 Established the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), with new capital city of Moscow.
Lenin issued economic reforms called the New Economic Policy. Bolshevik victory Lenin dies Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin jockey for power and Stalin emerges as leader, Trotsky loses and is executed.
Stalin was determined to collectivize farms - making them combined property of the state - even if it meant millions would starve.
Stalin also wanted to increase industrial development through his five-year plans that set goals for output and new facilities. 1924 1912 1911 revolution doesn't stick and Sun Yat-sen was unable to hold onto rule; gave in to a warlord who wanted to become emperor. Republic of China May Fourth movement This was a protest against terms of the Versailles Treaty that ended WWI. The treaty declared that Germany's territorial rights in China would not be returned to the Chinese, but instead handed to the Japanese.
The intellectuals of this movement wanted to completely abondon Confucian ideas and adopt Western notions of equality and democracy.
When this didn't work, intellectuals turned to more radical ideas. 1919 also 1919 Sun Yat-sen returns to form the Nationalist party. The Nationalists form an alliance with Chinese communists.
However, a Nationalist military officer named Chang Kai-shek didn't like the communist alliance. When SunYat-sen dies in 1925, a showdown is set up between Chang Kai-shek's Nationalist party and the communists, led by Mao Zedong. Kuomintang (KMT) 1929 Massive losses in investments
Bank failures (no FDIC yet)
Low industrial production
Very high unemployment - 25%
(no welfare yet so people have no safety net) 1929 New Deal Franklin Delano Roosevelt Established Social Security
Established the FDIC
Created work programs (WPA) Adolf Hitler The USSR was insulated from the Great Depression.
Germany was not.
People were open to the idea of a stronger, non-parliamentary government that could solve the nation's problems.
Hitler was able to achieve this by seizing totalitarian control, partly through rebuilding the military in violation of the Versailles Treaty. Hitler used tactics like the use of secret police (Gestapo) and the creation of a cult of personality (worship of a strong leader). Mussolini was able to do the same in Italy, partly because Italians were angry about the lack of territory won through WWI. Benito Mussolini Japanese Militarism Japan was also hit hard by the Great Depression. It's
dependence on outside materials meant that imperialism continued full steam ahead after WWI. Japan continued aggressively seeking control throughout Asia, using brutal tactics sometimes, especially in China. More
Authoritarian Responses Bolshevik Promises The World Between the Wars