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The Cold War

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Ms. Mc Caffrey

on 17 March 2018

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Transcript of The Cold War

The Cold War
The Cuban Missile Crisis 1962

To investigate the causes, progress and results of the Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
Learning Intention
The Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
But in 1959, a small Communist group, led by Fidel Castro overthrew Batista.
Castro nationalised (put under government ownership) the sugar plantations and took over other American businesses.
In response the American government refused to buy Cuban sugar.
Castro turned to the Soviet Union, Russia for help.
The Russian leader Khruschev agreed to help.
The Soviet Union bought Cuban sugar and sold weapons to Cuba.
The Communist Takeover of Cuba
The American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), with the sanction of President Kennedy, supported the invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles living in America.
They planned to overthrow Castro and return Batista to power.
However, the invasion of the Bay of Pigs in Cuba in 1961 was a disastrous failure.
It drove Castro closer to the Soviet Union.
The Bay of Pigs
Berlin Blockade
Korean War
In the 1950's Cuba had a close relationship with America.
America bought Cuba's main crop, sugar, and American companies contained most of Cuba's industry.
The US supported the dictator of Cuba, Batista.
Prior Knowledge - Who is this?
Soviet Missile Bases
In 1962, the Russian leader, Khruschev, decided that his country would build missile bases in Cuba.
Soon afterwards an American U2 spy plane photographed Soviet missile bases being constructed in Cuba.
If they were built, they would bring all major US cities within range of Soviet missiles.
What is happening in this picture?
Examining a visual / Picture Q
What is happening in this image?
Who is pictured?
Danger of War
President Kennedy addressed the American people on television.
He informed them that a missile attack launched from Cuban any country in the Western hemisphere would be seen as an attack by the USSR on the USA.
He had ordered a blockade of Cuba by the US navy until the missiles were removed.
He also put US troops on alert.
Danger of War
Neither side was prepared to give in, and the world seemed to be headed for a nuclear war as Soviet ships steamed towards Cuba.
Some ships were stopped but were allowed to go on because they did not have parts for nuclear weapons.
An Agreement is Reached
Khruschev offered to remove Soviet missiles from Cuba if the United States removed its missiles from Turkey.
Kennedy refused to commit the United States and seemed to be planning an invasion of Cuba.
Then Khruschev offered to dismantle and remove all missiles from Cuba if America promised not to invade Cuba.
Kennedy accepted the offer, the Soviet ships were ordered to turn back and the crisis was over.
The Cold War Comes to an End
The Cold War Comes to an End
Gorbachev Comes to Power
In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev became leader of the Soviet Union.
He began a programme of reforms that brought about the downfall of communism and the end of the Cold War.
The key to Gorbachev's reforms was military spending.
Gorbachev believed that military spending was taking up too much of Russia's resources.
But he could not reduce military spending without stopping the arms race with America.
In a series of meetings with President Reagan and later with President Bush Sr. Gorbachev forged an agreement under which the USA and USSR would eliminate thousands of nuclear missiles and reduce the size of their armed forces.
The Collapse of Communism
Pressure for reform also came from Eastern European countries.
Gorbachev promised that the Soviet army would never again be used to put down opposition to communist governments in these countries.
This led to the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe.
The people sought to demolish the barriers between East and West.
In 1989 they knocked down the Berlin Wall.
One year later in 1990, East and West Germany were united as part of a wider European agreement.
Eventually communism collapsed in the Soviet Union. In 1991 some communists opposed to Gorbachev's reforms attempted to take over government, This led to the break up of the Soviet Union and the Cold War ended.
Berlin Wall
Full transcript