Present Remotely
Send the link below via email or IM
CopyPresent to your audience
Start remote presentation Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
 People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
 This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
 A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
 Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Constraining nonthermal energy in galaxy clusters
No description
by
TweetFranco Vazza
on 18 February 2017Transcript of Constraining nonthermal energy in galaxy clusters
Nonthermal energy in the ICM:
a gateway to cosmic rays, plasma physics & magnetogenesis
Where are the CRprotons?
Summary:
NT energy in clusters: small & linked to important physics
Turbulence in the ICM
Where are the CRprotons?
flat
radial profiles
allowed ~% level of ICM energy, as in Fermi+14.
mostly constrains accelerat. efficiency in cluster shocks (M<5)
A solution?

(radio) electrons
accelerated by
shock drift acceleration + DSA at ~perpendicular M<5 shocks
(Guo+15)

protons
accelerated only by
quasiparall. shocks (Caprioli+14)
> same results from semianalytical
models of
double relics
> too large DSA efficiency required,
troubles with FERMI upper limits.
Radial distribution of CR/gas pressure ratio
ENZO simulations: PPM +
2 fluid models for Cosmic Rays
Vazza et al. 2012, 2013, 2014, 2016
~1/21/3 objects above FERMI (stacking) limits.
shock reacceleration of CRs
does not
help here.
Predicted emission vs observed FERMI limits
Radio relics & gamma
10 cluster with double relics.
CRe & Bfield from radio.
CRp injection based on DSA.
> comparison with FERMI
(stacking) limits.
> constrain acceleration eff.
Using observed double relics to
predict gammaray emission:
Radio relics & gamma
(Vazza & Bruggen 2014 MNRAS)
(Vazza, Eckert et al. 2015 MNRAS)
Where are the CR protons?
~1/3 of clusters emits
above FERMI limits.
Simulated GammaMass relations
cosmic rays gas density
~2 million CPU hours on CURIE@Genci, Prace project 2014
Obliquity & cosmic ray acceleration in the ICM
ENZOMHD, 5 levels of AMR
Lagrangian tracers to simulate CRs
(Wittor, FV, Brüggen, submitted)
Franco Vazza (Hamburg University)
+M.Brüggen, T. Jones, D. Wittor, C. Gheller, D.Eckert, G. Brunetti, D. Ryu, A. Bonafede
The shocking and turbulent life of a galaxy cluster(1)
Heating
Cosmic rays
The shocking and turbulent life of a galaxy cluster(2)
Magnetic fields
Pressure support
Filtering & shocks
do matter.
Turbulence is always referred to a scale.
Turbulence in the ICM
New highresolution simulations of galaxy clusters/groups
@Univ. Minnesota
total
velocity
smallscale
filtered
(<200kpc)
Turbulence in the ICM
Turbulence in the ICM
compressive modes solenoidal modes
> particle acceleration > dynamo amplification
Turbulent dissipation rate ~
Turbulence in the ICM
A minimal recap of ~robust previous findings
Cosmic rays in the ICM (1)
Cosmic rays protons from structure formation shocks predicted since long.
Pfrommer+07
Updates on the accel.efficiency in DSA following the inclusion of more physics (> Kang's talk)
Efficiency for M<5 very uncertain
Where are the CRprotons?
Ackermann et al. 2014
no detection of hadronic emission after ~7 years of FERMILAT.
CR energy must be <% of E_thermal inside Rvir
> test of acceleration
efficiency by cosmic shocks
thermal
(e.g. Berezkinsky+98, Volk+99, Miniati+2001, Gabici & Blasi 02, Pfrommer & Ensslin 04...)
~400 clusters M>10 Msol
V=30050 Mpc , Dx =50200 kpc
nonrad. vs cooling+AGN (
simplistic
)
several acceleration models
simulated stacking
Observer vs simulated hadronic emission
uniform
20 kpc res.
~200 timesteps/cluster
shock<> vorticity
compressive<> solenoidal
(Vazza, Jones, Bruggen, Brunetti, Gheller, Porter, Ryu sub.)
Turbulence in the ICM(2)
(Short recap on previous works)
(Vazza, Roediger & Bruggen 12)
(Vazza et al. 2011)
Velocity spectra ~ "Kolmogorov"
Turb.energy <10% in centre
Miniati 14
astrophysical origin
What is the origin of cosmic magnetism ?
primordial origin
VS
The Square Kilometer Array
galaxy formation
Donnert+08
seeding by AGN/SN:
Li+06, Dubois+07, Xu+08, Donnert+08, Beck+13...
AGN+SF
primordial
new ENZO simulations tailored for radio surveys
> SKA
~30 million CPU hours on PizDaint @ CSCS
largest MHD simulations
to date 2400 cells / DM particles
ENZO AMR runs (6 levels) , PLM+ MHD (Dedner)
16 kpc resolution
primordial vs AGN seeding
> models diverge significantly for >0.5 R200
Traces of magnetogenesis in cluster outskirts ?
Faraday Rotation
profiles diverge for >R500
Barely observable with JVLA.
Should be possible with
SKAMID!
Vazza+06,09,10,11,12
(see also Dolag+05, Lau+07, Iapichino+08, Ryu+08, Gaspari+14, Schmidt+15)
velocity spectrum ~ Kolmogorov
turb. press. support increases outwards
turbulence increased during mergers
ICM2016Minneapolis
DSA acceleration efficiency at weak shocks must be revised down by ~ 10
Traces of magnetogensis in cluster outskirts ?
Cluster centre:
solenoidal
turbulence >
dynamo (see also Ryu+08, Cho+14)
Cluster outskirts:
compressive
motions >
no dynamo(?), memory of seeds fields
~smallscale dynamo
Observables in cluster outskirts
Vazza, Bruggen, Wittor,
Gheller, Eckert & Stubbe
2016 MNRAS
Turbulence in the ICM
Terms ruling enstrophy evolution:
Continuum emission
possible with surveys at
low frequencies:
>LOFAR, MWA, SKALOW
ITASCA SIMULATED CLUSTER SAMPLE 2016, FV, Jones et al.
ITASCA SIMULATED CLUSTER SAMPLE 2016, FV, Jones et al.
Vazza et al., in prep.
FERMI limits constrain the shock
acceleration efficiency for M<5
Most of turbulent dissipation via solenoidal modes.
Vorticity more transported than generated.
Cluster outskirts
should keep the memory of magnetogenesis
t
~no dynamo
Xray > THERMAL energy
Radio emission + Faraday Rotation > MAGNETIC energy ~12 % E_th
Xray/SZ fluctuations
> TURBULENT energy ~5% E_th
gammaray (nondetection)
> CR energy <% E_th
Brown+Rudnick+10
Churazov+12
FERMI Collab.+15
Hydrostatic mass bias & cluster cosmology
THERM
Acceleration efficiency of shocks in the ICM
Latest on turbulence
in the ICM
Cluster magnetism & magnetogenesis
Nonthermal constraints from COMA:
This talk:
the total nonthermal energy is ~8%
Snowden+07
3D rendering by T. Jones & D.Porter
3D rendering by T. Jones & D.Porter
3D rendering by CGheller with SPLOTCH
Diffusive shock acceleration
13
Vazza, Bruggen, Wittor,
Gheller, Eckert & Stubbe
2016 MNRAS
this work
FV & Brüggen+14
FV,Eckert,Brüggen & Huber 2015
all obliquities only >50 shocks
o
ELECTRON acceleration & relics
> emission is only ~50% reduced
PROTON acceleration & FERMI LIMITS
> gammaray emission reduced by ~5
> still larger than COMA limits
9099% dissipation into solenoidal modes
compressive budget increases outwards
Stretching+advection dominant in merger shocks (i.e. relics)
Baroc.+compress. large in accr. shocks
cosmology
amplification of weak primoridal fields
(e.g. Dolag+99 , Ryu+08, Bruggen+05, Vazza+14.., Marinacci +15)
3
3
3
3
(FV et al, in prep.)
Red=temperature
Blue=magnetic field
Miniati+01
THANKS
see Vazza, Ferrari+15,16
Kinetic spectra
Magnetic spectra
Turbulence in the ICM
Solenoidal
modes dominate all scales
Compressive
modes sensitive to mergers
Velocity Power spectra Mode ratios
MERGER
Full transcripta gateway to cosmic rays, plasma physics & magnetogenesis
Where are the CRprotons?
Summary:
NT energy in clusters: small & linked to important physics
Turbulence in the ICM
Where are the CRprotons?
flat
radial profiles
allowed ~% level of ICM energy, as in Fermi+14.
mostly constrains accelerat. efficiency in cluster shocks (M<5)
A solution?

(radio) electrons
accelerated by
shock drift acceleration + DSA at ~perpendicular M<5 shocks
(Guo+15)

protons
accelerated only by
quasiparall. shocks (Caprioli+14)
> same results from semianalytical
models of
double relics
> too large DSA efficiency required,
troubles with FERMI upper limits.
Radial distribution of CR/gas pressure ratio
ENZO simulations: PPM +
2 fluid models for Cosmic Rays
Vazza et al. 2012, 2013, 2014, 2016
~1/21/3 objects above FERMI (stacking) limits.
shock reacceleration of CRs
does not
help here.
Predicted emission vs observed FERMI limits
Radio relics & gamma
10 cluster with double relics.
CRe & Bfield from radio.
CRp injection based on DSA.
> comparison with FERMI
(stacking) limits.
> constrain acceleration eff.
Using observed double relics to
predict gammaray emission:
Radio relics & gamma
(Vazza & Bruggen 2014 MNRAS)
(Vazza, Eckert et al. 2015 MNRAS)
Where are the CR protons?
~1/3 of clusters emits
above FERMI limits.
Simulated GammaMass relations
cosmic rays gas density
~2 million CPU hours on CURIE@Genci, Prace project 2014
Obliquity & cosmic ray acceleration in the ICM
ENZOMHD, 5 levels of AMR
Lagrangian tracers to simulate CRs
(Wittor, FV, Brüggen, submitted)
Franco Vazza (Hamburg University)
+M.Brüggen, T. Jones, D. Wittor, C. Gheller, D.Eckert, G. Brunetti, D. Ryu, A. Bonafede
The shocking and turbulent life of a galaxy cluster(1)
Heating
Cosmic rays
The shocking and turbulent life of a galaxy cluster(2)
Magnetic fields
Pressure support
Filtering & shocks
do matter.
Turbulence is always referred to a scale.
Turbulence in the ICM
New highresolution simulations of galaxy clusters/groups
@Univ. Minnesota
total
velocity
smallscale
filtered
(<200kpc)
Turbulence in the ICM
Turbulence in the ICM
compressive modes solenoidal modes
> particle acceleration > dynamo amplification
Turbulent dissipation rate ~
Turbulence in the ICM
A minimal recap of ~robust previous findings
Cosmic rays in the ICM (1)
Cosmic rays protons from structure formation shocks predicted since long.
Pfrommer+07
Updates on the accel.efficiency in DSA following the inclusion of more physics (> Kang's talk)
Efficiency for M<5 very uncertain
Where are the CRprotons?
Ackermann et al. 2014
no detection of hadronic emission after ~7 years of FERMILAT.
CR energy must be <% of E_thermal inside Rvir
> test of acceleration
efficiency by cosmic shocks
thermal
(e.g. Berezkinsky+98, Volk+99, Miniati+2001, Gabici & Blasi 02, Pfrommer & Ensslin 04...)
~400 clusters M>10 Msol
V=30050 Mpc , Dx =50200 kpc
nonrad. vs cooling+AGN (
simplistic
)
several acceleration models
simulated stacking
Observer vs simulated hadronic emission
uniform
20 kpc res.
~200 timesteps/cluster
shock<> vorticity
compressive<> solenoidal
(Vazza, Jones, Bruggen, Brunetti, Gheller, Porter, Ryu sub.)
Turbulence in the ICM(2)
(Short recap on previous works)
(Vazza, Roediger & Bruggen 12)
(Vazza et al. 2011)
Velocity spectra ~ "Kolmogorov"
Turb.energy <10% in centre
Miniati 14
astrophysical origin
What is the origin of cosmic magnetism ?
primordial origin
VS
The Square Kilometer Array
galaxy formation
Donnert+08
seeding by AGN/SN:
Li+06, Dubois+07, Xu+08, Donnert+08, Beck+13...
AGN+SF
primordial
new ENZO simulations tailored for radio surveys
> SKA
~30 million CPU hours on PizDaint @ CSCS
largest MHD simulations
to date 2400 cells / DM particles
ENZO AMR runs (6 levels) , PLM+ MHD (Dedner)
16 kpc resolution
primordial vs AGN seeding
> models diverge significantly for >0.5 R200
Traces of magnetogenesis in cluster outskirts ?
Faraday Rotation
profiles diverge for >R500
Barely observable with JVLA.
Should be possible with
SKAMID!
Vazza+06,09,10,11,12
(see also Dolag+05, Lau+07, Iapichino+08, Ryu+08, Gaspari+14, Schmidt+15)
velocity spectrum ~ Kolmogorov
turb. press. support increases outwards
turbulence increased during mergers
ICM2016Minneapolis
DSA acceleration efficiency at weak shocks must be revised down by ~ 10
Traces of magnetogensis in cluster outskirts ?
Cluster centre:
solenoidal
turbulence >
dynamo (see also Ryu+08, Cho+14)
Cluster outskirts:
compressive
motions >
no dynamo(?), memory of seeds fields
~smallscale dynamo
Observables in cluster outskirts
Vazza, Bruggen, Wittor,
Gheller, Eckert & Stubbe
2016 MNRAS
Turbulence in the ICM
Terms ruling enstrophy evolution:
Continuum emission
possible with surveys at
low frequencies:
>LOFAR, MWA, SKALOW
ITASCA SIMULATED CLUSTER SAMPLE 2016, FV, Jones et al.
ITASCA SIMULATED CLUSTER SAMPLE 2016, FV, Jones et al.
Vazza et al., in prep.
FERMI limits constrain the shock
acceleration efficiency for M<5
Most of turbulent dissipation via solenoidal modes.
Vorticity more transported than generated.
Cluster outskirts
should keep the memory of magnetogenesis
t
~no dynamo
Xray > THERMAL energy
Radio emission + Faraday Rotation > MAGNETIC energy ~12 % E_th
Xray/SZ fluctuations
> TURBULENT energy ~5% E_th
gammaray (nondetection)
> CR energy <% E_th
Brown+Rudnick+10
Churazov+12
FERMI Collab.+15
Hydrostatic mass bias & cluster cosmology
THERM
Acceleration efficiency of shocks in the ICM
Latest on turbulence
in the ICM
Cluster magnetism & magnetogenesis
Nonthermal constraints from COMA:
This talk:
the total nonthermal energy is ~8%
Snowden+07
3D rendering by T. Jones & D.Porter
3D rendering by T. Jones & D.Porter
3D rendering by CGheller with SPLOTCH
Diffusive shock acceleration
13
Vazza, Bruggen, Wittor,
Gheller, Eckert & Stubbe
2016 MNRAS
this work
FV & Brüggen+14
FV,Eckert,Brüggen & Huber 2015
all obliquities only >50 shocks
o
ELECTRON acceleration & relics
> emission is only ~50% reduced
PROTON acceleration & FERMI LIMITS
> gammaray emission reduced by ~5
> still larger than COMA limits
9099% dissipation into solenoidal modes
compressive budget increases outwards
Stretching+advection dominant in merger shocks (i.e. relics)
Baroc.+compress. large in accr. shocks
cosmology
amplification of weak primoridal fields
(e.g. Dolag+99 , Ryu+08, Bruggen+05, Vazza+14.., Marinacci +15)
3
3
3
3
(FV et al, in prep.)
Red=temperature
Blue=magnetic field
Miniati+01
THANKS
see Vazza, Ferrari+15,16
Kinetic spectra
Magnetic spectra
Turbulence in the ICM
Solenoidal
modes dominate all scales
Compressive
modes sensitive to mergers
Velocity Power spectra Mode ratios
MERGER