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Relative Prounouns

relative pronouns, who, which, that, where, when.

Marcello Araújo

on 8 January 2019

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Transcript of Relative Prounouns

Relative pronouns
They are the link between two different sentences.
(Formal language)
This is the woman. I met her at the party.
This is the woman whom I met at the party.
For people when it is the Direct Object.
For things and animals

It can be used to substitute who and which.
This is the picture. It is beautiful.
("That" is used with informal language)
That's the house where I lived in my childhood.
I remember the days when I was young.
They are:
link: a connection
Used for people.
For Places
She lived in the 1960's when there weren't smartphones.
Dave is an mechanic. He works at Ford.
Dave is an mechanic who works at Ford.
Superman is a man. He can fly.
Superman is a man who can fly.
This is the picture that is beautiful.
I hate politicians. They steal our money.
I hate politicians that steal our money.
Steve Jobs was an inventor. He created the iPod.
Steve Jobs was the inventor who created the iPod.
Steve Jobs was an inventor. I admire Steve very much.
Steve Jobs was the inventor whom I admired very much.
The hipo is an wild animal. It lives in freshwater.
The hipo is an wild animal which lives in freshwater.
Skydiving is a sport. It is dangerous.
Skydiving is a sport which is dangerous.
That's the house. I lived there in my childhood.
Copacabana is a famous place. Many people go there.
Copacabana is a famous place where many people go.
Used with time.
I remember the days. I was young.
She lived in the 1960's. There weren't smartphones.
Relative Clauses
(part 3)
Relative clauses give additional information about a noun in the main clause (antecedent):
The relative clause always comes after the antecedent.
(relative clause)
(main clause)
The book is very exciting
(main clause)
The book
is very exciting
that I bought
1) DEFINING relative clauses: (especificativas):
There are two types of Relative Clauses:
They "define" the antecedent and
its meaning.
The noise that the car made woke me up.
That's the man who stole the bank.
The information they give is ESSENTIAL, and if we omit the relative clause the whole meaning of the sentence is affected
No commas ( , ) are used
The noise woke me up
"noise" - any noise
The noise that the car made...
"noise" - car noise
2) NON-DEFINING relative clauses: (explicativas):
Dorothy, who teaches in my school, is retiring.
They give
information about the antecedent, which is "known", it is already defined.
London, where I spent my summer holidays, is an interesting city.
The relative clause is
. We can omit it with no alteration in meaning in the main clause. It's similar to using brackets ().
We use commas ( , ).
Tips to know when a relative clause is:
You don't know the person, the place, the object
The country has many mountains
The woman is crazy
The car was fast
The "antecendent" is very generic
You know the person, the place, the object
Carla is crazy
Chile has many mountains
My Fusca was fast
ALWAYS there will two comas separating the sentences
Chile, which is a spanish country, has many mountains.
Carla, who was my ex-girlfriend, is crazy.
My Fusca, which had an excellent motor, was fast.
Possessive Case
(Tradução: Cujo, Cuja)
That's the teacher whose daughter is in my class.
John is a great writer. John's book was a best-seller.
John, whose book was a best-seller, is a great writer.
That's the teacher. His daughter is in my class.
Omission of the Relative Pronouns
There are two very simple rules to know if the relative pronoun can be omitted or not:
Give me the clips that are in the box.
If there isn't anything between the relative pronoun and the verb - you can't omit it
The relative pronoun is the subject is the second sentence
The clips are in the box
The woman who he married is my sister.
If there is something between the relative pronoun and the verb - you can omit it
The relative pronoun is the object of the second sentence
My sister married him
The woman who
lives next door
is a dentist
The students that she teaches are nice
The woman
(who = the woman - is the subject)
lives next door
("who" has to stay in the sentence)
The people that work in the office are nice
The money that was on the table is mine
The people
work in the office
The money
was on the table
(can't omit "that")
(can't omit "that")
The teacher that I needed to talk was on vacation
I needed to talk to
the teacher
(that = the teacher - is the object)
(I is the subject)
(you can omit "that")
He found the keys that he lost yesterday
He lost
the keys
(you can omit "that")
She teaches
the students
(part 1)
(part 2)
Full transcript