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The Mughal, Ottoman, and Safavid Empires
Transcript of The Mughal, Ottoman, and Safavid Empires
By: Afton Guedea
1) Similarities between the Muslim Empires
Differences between the Muslim Empires:
-The Mughal Empire ruled a mainly non-Muslim population while the other two empires ruled mainly Muslim
-At the beginning the Ottoman subjects were maily christians in the first years of ruling by became mostly muslim by the end of their reign
-The Ottomans were Sunni Muslim while the Safavids were Shi'ia Muslim
-All of the Empires legal codes and social organizations were based on different morals
2) The weakness shared by all three Muslim Empires
3) Social and political differences between the 3 Empires.
- In the social life of the Ottoman Empire the women had harsh restrictions that came from the Islamic Law saying as to what they could and could not do, making them subject to a different set of laws
- the Society was a mixed society of Muslims and non-Muslims
-the Aristocrats had limited power and influence
-the Hindu populations were threatened by the ruling Muslims in the high political power jobs
4)The reasons for the decline of the Mughal Dynasty
Reasons for decline:
Several reasons played a key role in the demise of the Mughal empire such as the size, Aurangzeb's rule, wars of succession, and weak successors. The size of the empire played a role in the demise because it was too big to control, this made communication very difficult thus leading to the downfall. Aurangzeb rule was a main factor because he destroyed all the good that Akbar did for the empire. He was not tolerant of other religions thus treating the Hindus poorly thus leading to the stopping of their corporation with the government. Wars of succession took place after Aurangzeb rule and destroyed the peace among the empire because of all the feuds. This lead to weak successors that could not maintain a healthy and stable empire.
5) What were the causes of the decline in the Ottoman Empire
Reasons for the decline:
The ottoman empire decline in the 17th century because of many of the same reasons as the Mughal decline. The size of the empire played an important part because it put strain on communication, trade, and it was hard to control. The administrative system was slowly declining along with the government. The officials were beginning to become corrupt with their money, taking it and using it for their own pleasures. The following rulers after the strong beginning rulers were starting to feel the strain and could not maintain the empire any longer. Finally, the Europeans were surpassing the ottomans technology and trade routes.
6) Reasons that the Safavid Empire declined
Reasons for the decline:
The Safavid empire declined because of several factors mainly focused not on the economy but on the military. The military started to decline leaving it in the keen position to be attacked by both the Ottomans and the Afghans. Since the empire was so large and the military was becoming weaker these attacks lead to the rapid decline of the safavid empire.
The most influential Leader of the Mughal Empire:
- All three of these Empires possessed great militaries that conquered most of their empires land.
-All of the empires originated from Turkic and nomadic cultures
-All of the empires were ruled by absolute monarchs
-The Military conquests of all three empires were funded by the raising of taxes on agriculture
-The Mughal, Ottoman and Safavid empires were known as the "Gunpowder Empires" due to their success with firearms during their conquests
All three of the different Muslim Empires shared a lot of the same weaknesses. Some of which include the poor leadership skills that lead to all three of the empires declines. The ottomans were not successful in the succession of the leaders, the Mughals leaders declined after Aurangzeb rule and the Safavid empire fell victim to poor leadership as well. These problems then lead to the downfall of their economies because they could not support themselves and they crumpled. All three of the Muslim empires also failed to incorporate the European technological advancements which lead to them quickly being surpassed in the intellectual fields.
-the islamic law was applied to all muslims
-high positions were given to merit and were often foreigners
-most of the high power government jobs were held by muslims
-the leadership was hereditary
I believe that Akbar was the most influential leader of the Mughal Empire because it was during his rule that the empire started to take off in a positive direction. Under Akbars rule there was religious tolerance for the Hindus, who in turn aided the empire with their support. HE re-gained all the lands that were lost during Baburs rule which expanded the empire tremendously. All throughout his rule the empire was flourishing until he died and Aurangzeb took over and reversed all of his good laws.
The most influential Leader of the ottoman empire:
The most influential Sultan of the ottoman empire was Suleiman the Magnificent because during his reign he accomplished so much. Suleiman had many different talents that contributed to the fact that he was the most influential leader like his military skills, his political skills and his economic skills. Using his military skills he conquered many christian lands which expanded the ottoman empire. He reconstructed the legal system using his skills in economy and politics. These many talents all made Suleiman the most influential Sultan of the ottoman empire
The most influential leader of Safavid
The most influential leader to rule the Safavid Empire was Abbas I or "Abbas the Great" because under his rule he created a standing army, and removed the Ottoman and Uzbek troops from Persia. After defeating the Uzbeks he moved the capitol from Kazvin to Esfahan, which became a beautiful city in a short amount of time. He laid out the city with boulevards and a square with mosques and theological colleges all through the city. Under his rule he made the Safavid empire beautiful and successful which is why he is the most influential Shah from the Safavid Empire.
"Abbas the Great"
Suleiman the Magnificent
Empires all together