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Computed Tomography (CT)

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Lindsey Norman

on 2 December 2014

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Transcript of Computed Tomography (CT)

Computed Tomography (CT)
Angie Mainwood, Lindsey Norman, Robert Sorensen
Process of creating a cross-sectional tomographic plane of any part of the body
Godfrey N. Hounsfield
Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology in 1979
Allan M. Cormack
Laid the foundation for axial tomography
Godfrey N. Hounsfield
Initially, wanted to create a machine that had nothing to do with medicine
Allan M. Cormack
Programmed the computer to read the axial scans and put them into a three-dimensional model
Created a x-ray map of the human body, to see where the different body parts were positioned in different angles around the body
Didn't collaborate and had never met until receiving the award
"A realization that you could determine what was in a box by taking readings at all different angles through it"
Worked EMI Laboratories
Division of EMI, 1st record label to the Beatles
Many different types of exams can be performed on the whole body
CT Head and Neck
Exams Performed
Images are done with and without contrast
Angio images also done to look at the arteries
3rd Generation Scanners- introduce a rotate/rotate movement. Where the
x-ray tube and detector array rotate simultaneously. Most scanners have one of the following technical variations
Helical CT-slip ring technology for 360 degree rotation
Multislice detectors-allow mutiple slices in one rotation
Volume CT- 64 rows or more with x-ray beam in cone beam configuration
Flat panel CT-A detector plate similar to DR
How It Operates
3 Major Components of CT Scanner
Data aquisition
Reconstructing of Image
Storage of Image Data
Image Display
Houses the x-ray tube, DAS (data aquisition system), and detector array.
Automated and linked to computer and gantry
Must be accurate and reliable

New Equipment
New CT scanner by Toshiba
Substantially reduces radiation while still improving image quality
107 patients undergoing heart scans, radiation exposure was reduced by as much as 95%
Images showed less blurriness, reduced graininess and greater visibility of fine details.
How It Operates
New Equipment
Patient Considerations
Most exams are painless, fast and easy
Some patients have a difficult time holding still, have claustrophobia or have chronic pain.
When IV contrast is used many patients will have a warm, flushed sensation and a metallic taste in their mouths for a few minutes.
If patient complains of pain or discomfort near injection site, They should be checked for extravasation.
Contrast allergies
Renal impairment
Pregnant patients
Patient size
Patient Exposure
Patient Types
Trauma patients- such as MVA, quickly identify injuries.
Cancer patients- can detect many different kinds of cancer. Helps to plan proper radiation treatments
Patients with acute symptoms- Chest or abdominal pain, difficulty breathing.
Patients suffering from vascular disease
Pediatric- evaluate and detect cancers, congenital malformations, injuries and disease.

Where to go?
All require being a certified ARRT tech
Due January 10th
: $15,836
On the Job Training
Must do
125 Repetitions
of CT Procedures
University of Utah
Boise State
On the Job
Weber Requires:
2.0 GPA, Application with letters of reference, an essay and $25 Fee
Boise State Requires
: 2.5 GPA, 3 letters of reference, copies of transcript, resume, $20 Fee
The U Requires
: CPR, Background check, maybe a fee
On the Job requires:
a site that will let you do it
Boise State:
Due March 1st
The U
: Takes applicants every 6 months, every January and July. Deadline for January is October 15th, July is March 15th.
On the job
: Whenever you ask
The U
: $2,880
Boise State:
$16,865 per semester
On the Job
: Get paid to learn. Bazinga!!!
Procedures are documented, verified & submitted when complete via an online tool at arrt.org
59 Procedures split into 7 categories, Head and Neck, Spine & Muscloskeletal, Chest, ABD, & Pelvis, Special Procedures, Image display & Post processing, Quality Assurance.
Certification Test
Broken into 3 parts
A. Patient Care & Safety......36 questions
B. Imaging Procedures......75 questions
C. Physics and Instrumentation.. 54 questions
$150 to take test
On the Job Training
Cross-Trained Jobs
Iasis Healthcare
ANNUAL 49,568 - 71,813 MEDIAN: 60,208
Job Description
Techs do not hold - due to exposure
Bureau of Labor Statistics: 2010-2020
28% growth
Prices of equipment are coming down, more clinics and physicians' offices will be able to perform CT scans.
Also creates the need for skilled technologists
Especially those that are
cross trained
HOURLY 24 - 35 MEDIAN: 29
Shift Details
On Call - Only really seen in smaller facilities
8 - 10 hour shifts, around the clock
Night Shifts - usually cover different modalities i.e. diagnostic, MRI, etc.
T: X-ray tube
D: X-ray detectors
X: X-ray beam
R: Gantry rotation
4D CT scans

Faster and more accurate
Not only capture location of tumor, but capture the movements
New Equipment
POP QUIZ!!! - Marker
What were the initial CT machines designed to scan?
Name 2 scans commonly done in CT?
What is the "donut portion" of the CT scanner called that contains the x-ray tube and detector array?
1. Name 2 contraindications of CT?
2. Name 2 patient types that need CT Scans?
3. Name the school that offers both CT/MRI in the same program?
4. How much does it cost to take the CT certification exam?
The END!!!!!
Work well under pressure- working with Trauma Team (Doctors, Nurses, etc.)
Know pathology & positioning - as they set parameters of what is being scanned
Know procedures - some need contrast
Excellent patient care - variety of patients that are mostly sick, in trauma, etc.
CT only program or CT/MRI Program
3-D Imaging
3-D reconstruction if the images is useful in surgical planning, CT angiography, radiation therapy planning and virtual reality imaging.
Detects both bone, and soft tissue damage
1st Prototype, 1968
Pencil Beam, 1 degree turn
First Brain Scan 1971
Atkinson Morley's Hospital - London England
Full Body Scanner, 1974
Scan times reduced to 20 seconds

Progress as of today...
Scan Time:
Female, suspected frontal lobe tumor
After scan, patient was operated on in which
the surgeon remarked
"It looks exactly like the picture"
Scan Time:
9 days, individual slices
2.5 hours, computer off-site
Print Image:

2 hours
80 x 80
5 mins per slice, 2 hours reconstruction, 80 x 80
320 x 320
Print Image:
9 days
2.5 hrs
2 hrs
80 x 80
First Brain Scan
5 mins
2 hrs
80 x 80
Reconstruction reduced to 7 minutes
.5 sec, 4 slices
512, 1024
IHC, MountainStar, University
Indeed, LinkedIn, jobs.utah.gov
4-10's, 7 on 7 off common
Phlebotomy Certified - starting an IV for contrast
Full transcript