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THEO 403 (Su '16) T08-09 - Islam (Part 2)

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by

Hartmut Scherer

on 12 July 2016

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Transcript of THEO 403 (Su '16) T08-09 - Islam (Part 2)

Islam
The Religion of Submission to God
(Part 2)

Authority in Islam
-
Arabic
Qur'an has highest authority
- as long as the NT (114 chapters called suras)
- longer suras are in the beginning
-
al-Fatiha
, the opening sura, is
recited at all important prayer times
The Qur'an
Sunna and Hadith
- the 2 sources of shari'a:
the Koran and the Sunna
- applies only to Muslims
- under Islamic law there is no separation of
church and state
The Shari’a (Islamic Law)
Sufism
- the movement started in the 8th century
- many monastic orders have their roots in Sufism
What is the mystical tradition in Islam?
- the term “sufi” probably comes from the
Arabic root suf “wool”
Nature of Scripture in religions
Prepare a comparison chart and write down the similarities and differences between the Qur'an and the Bible with regard to the nature of Scripture
Excursus:
Understanding of the nature of Scripture
Qur'an:
Bible:
Protestant Christians apply their understanding of the role of the Bible to other religions and their holy writings. (sola scriptura)
Protestant fallacy
E.g., we can find out the essential Muslim beliefs
and
practices by studying the Qur'an
Exercise in dyads:
- dictated in Arabic by the
angel Gabriel to Muhammad
- recognizing, reciting and practicing
is important
- reading, understanding, studying
and obeying is important
- it's a divine book and the perfect
revelation from God
- preexisted from eternity in heaven
(uncreated and co-eternal with God)
- written by men of God under the
guidance of the Spirit of God
- the Bible is a
divine and human
book
- OT and NT are attested by a
large
number of mss
.
- The NT text remains the
best attested
document
in the ancient world
- Bible got distorted by followers
(Uthman -> one version)
Beliefs and practices of Muslims are determined by the Qur'an and the Sunna
What is the central question in Islam?
5 Essential Beliefs (iman)
What do you practice?
Do you submit to Allah?
- Oneness or
absolute unity of God
Faith
- helpers of God
Angels &
Spirits (jinn)
Prophets
Final Judgment
Divine
Decree
- transcendent (strongly
emphasized)
- jinn -> lower than
angels; limited life
span; +/-)
- receive their revelations from God
- corrupted original messages
- Qur’an is the purest existing
scripture
2 nonnegotiable points:
b) Christ did not die on the
cross (4:157)
a) Jesus Christ is not God
(5:117)
- many specifics have parallels in
Judaism and Christianity
- the faithful will triumph
Major difference?
not redemptive
“Whomsoever God guides, he is rightly guided: and whom He leads astray, they are the losers” (7:178).
- nobody can hinder Allah;
whatever he wills, comes
to pass.
5 Pillars in Islam/5 Acts of Worship
(shahada)
Confession
- obligatory Muslim prayer
Prayer
Fasting
Legal Almsgiving
Pilgrimage
“There is no god but God.
Muhammad is the
messenger of God.”
- month-long daytime fast during
the ninth lunar month of Ramadan
- one of the most sacred times
- giving alms purifies the wealth
so that the owner can use it
(Minimal
Obligations)
(salaat)
Become a Muslim - how?
(Sawm)
(Zakat)
- actions that are
obligatory
- fard
(e.g., the five pillars; modesty in dress)
All actions fall into one of three categories:
- actions that are expressly
prohibited
- haram
(e.g., idolatry; drinking wine)
- actions that are
permitted
- halal (e.g., food)
Muslims deny that Christ died on the cross.
“The work of Muhammad is based on being honored and the work of Christ is based on being insulted. This produces two very different reactions to mockery.” (John Piper)
The Essence of Christ’s work
1
1
http://www.desiringgod.org/blog/posts/the-mocking-of-muhammad-and-condemning-of-christ; retrieved September 27, 2012.
It means that a religion with no insulted Savior will not endure insults to win the scoffers. It means that this religion is destined to bear the impossible load of upholding the honor of one who did not die and rise again to make that possible. It means that Jesus Christ is still the only hope of peace with God and peace with man. And it means that his followers must be willing to “share his sufferings, becoming like him in his death.” (Philippians 3:10)
1
- The word Sunna was used to name the Prophet’s
“custom,” his word, deeds, and habitual practices
- Sunna is an ideal for Muslim behavior in the umma
- Sunna was preserved and passed down by means
of a
literary form
called
Hadith
- process of sifting through documents took
two centuries
(Hajj)
What It All Means
Sources and Image Credit
2)
Saudi Arabia - https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/53/Saudi_Arabia_2003_CIA_map.jpg.
1)
Title adopted from David S. Noss, A History of the World's Religions (Prentice Hall, 2003), X.
3)
Belief of the Ahl us Sunnah Wal Jama'ah; http://subhay.com/image/catalog/Books/ZZ%20Publishers/BELIEFS%20OF%20THE%20AHL%20US%20SUNNAH%20WAL%20JAMA'AH.jpg.
4)
Ahmadinejad; https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/18/Mahmoud_Ahmadinejad.jpg/576px-Mahmoud_Ahmadinejad.jpg.
5)
shahada (confession); https://www.flickr.com/photos/modenadude/5325993467/in/photolist-p3TA-h1Tfu-ednjw2-6jE8Tf-pyqMqQ-dppore-97D7iz-6seTWn-9mDRVN-55FNnj-dnfJTt-6Xwjmw-dn7NAf-9RnJqF-qywYEj-6JquJg-6Xsiqz-tUQk6y-yahqL6-xdgiPb/.
So you meet a Muslim
Considerations before we present the gospel
- God is one
- Christ cannot be God
- Bible is full of errors
- it makes sense to
accept the very
simple faith of Islam
- diet (no pork)
- time of prayer
- know the fundamentals of your own faith
- Christ - one person with two natures
(Council of Chalcedon)
- simplicity can hardly be the criterion for truth
- many manuscripts allow us to discover the
original with a great degree of confidence
- live a transformed life by God's grace
- Muslims may need a power encounter
Full transcript