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Transcript of Top 20
Prof. Judith Hunt
12 DECEMBER 2016
Discovery of fire
Application of wheel
The use of iron
Code of Hammurabi
About 1.4 million years ago
About 3,500 years BC
Around 3000 BC
Around 1000 BC
The use of the money
Around 700 BC
6th century BC
The emergence of the ancient polis
About 600 BC
Alexander the Great
Jesus Christ and Christianity
around 30 AD
Islam and Muhammad
8th century AD
The discovery of the compass
Around the 10th century AD
1473 - 1543 AD
Humanism and the Renaissance
The 15th Century AD
1564 - 1616 AD
Invention of printing press
Around 1440 AD
The discovery of electricity
Islam along with Christianity is the most influential religion in the world. The most important representative of Islam is Muhammad or the prophet Muhammad, as Muslim believers called him. He was from Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe with a unique maternal bloodline of Israelite ancestry. According to Islamic tradition, being 40 years old, he started to periodically withdraw into seclusion in a cave near Mecca, where in 610 AD he received the first revelation in a vision conveyed by angel Jibreel; the first message referred to the strict monotheism and commitment to Allah (Islam). He received revelations until his death, and since he was, according to tradition, illiterate, his followers record all of it in a sacred book, Quran.
Feudalism is a social system of rights and obligations based on the possession of land and personal relationships in which the land (and much lesser other income sources) vassals held as something received from masters. The term feudalism initially indicated only the system functions and departments within the social feudal hierarchy by which senior as the owner of large land holdings maintained his vassals’ by giving them possession (feud, fief) as a reward for faithful service.
Compass is certainly one of the most important inventions in human history. It has been known since ancient times, but 10th century is taken as the official time of occurrence of this device. Someone cannot say that the compass was invented in one day but we should speak of the discovery of natural forces and its applications. There are steps that should be distinguished with compass. The discovery of the component that hardened iron or steel may be magnetized when it is rubbed against a magnetic crystal. The discovery of an ore that has electromagnetic abilities, it can attract iron. Realizing that magnetized sharp object can be used in orientation.
Nicolaus Copernicus was the Polish astronomer who formulated theory about heliocentric system. At first, Copernicus for a long time thought about whether to publish his theory or to teach it orally, like old Pythagoreans. Around 1514, Nicolaus finally shared his findings.
Printing is an activity that deals with methods of design and fabrication of printed products such as books, magazines, newspapers, posters, stationeries, securities, valuable papers and the like. It includes all procedures that provide imprint of graphic design, prepress, printing and graphic processing.
Humanism, as a culture movement determined the future of the world. Development of the commodity–currency economy in the framework of feudal society and the gradual transformation of medieval citizens in the middle class has led to a new phenomenon in the culture. The medieval, mostly, church culture was not able to meet the needs of the newly created civil class, which needed real, scientific knowledge. Therefore, civil society help develop the natural sciences that have been neglected in the middle Ages.
The protestant Reformation was a16th century political, religious, cultural, intellectual, and catholic Europe setup in place the beliefs and structures that define the continent. The impetus for this movement came from the Church itself, the most important were related to St. Francis of Assisi, Wycliffe J., J. Hus, Jerome of Prague and others.
William Shakespeare was an English poet, playwright and actor, considered the greatest writer in the English language and the greatest playwright of all time. He wrote a total of 38 theater plays and 154 sonnets. Although little is known about his life, his works such as "Hamlet," "Romeo and Juliet", "King Lear", have a very great influence on literature and theater for more than 400 years.
We will never really find out did Prometheus was the one that gave people fire, but the first invention that separated modern humans from their evolutionary ancestors was the invention of fire. In the beginning, people used fire as a result of natural occurrences (lightning strike, from the volcano, spontaneous friction or forest fire), and later people managed to start a fire by rubbing together dried branches or using flint and tinder. In ancient China, Greece, and Peru they used mirrors to reflect and concentrate the Sun's rays and start a fire.
Numerous legends and myths about discovery of fire could be found in almost all cultures in the world and testify about the great importance in the cultural development of modern man. While earlier species, such as Homo erectus, used naturally caused fire, Homo sapiens is the first who consciously started to use fire which allowed people to prepare food, to heat and illuminate dwellings.
Some of the used of fire included a source of warmth, a method for cooking and protection purposes. These advancements enabled cultural innovations, geographical dispersal and a change in behavior and diet. Through creating fire, human activity was expanded as they were in a position to proceed during the night or cold nights and do what they were needed. Conscious ignition of fire marks the beginning of all that technologies that man uses as well as paves the way for the processing of metals and making of more durable tools.
Similarly to fire, discovery of wheel was the event that changed the history of civilization and its course. As for its history, wheel probably existed even before 3500 BC, but that period is taken as the period when it is finally definitively established. From that period we have information about wheel’s application for transport of people and goods based on the archeological evidence, from southern Poland. Scientists have discovered small cartwheel which is probably from around 3500 BC. It is thought that wheel comes from the Sumerian civilization, i.e. the territory of present-day Iraq.
The oldest wheel was found on the territory of present-day Slovenia. Initially was used to work with pottery, but quickly it spreads around the world. In about 1000 BC, is widely used in China. The researchers point out that until then in nature did not exist anything like the wheel so people could not copy it. Some similar structures exist only on microscopically level. A man invented a completely new thing that helped him and facilitated labor and transport. It is possible that people observed some animals that use motions similar to wheel’s rotation and applied those observations.
One of the core reasons as to why the wheel was invented was due to the mere fact that there was a demand for metal tools. These metals were needed to chisel holes that were excellent and fitted and axles. The wheel was a cylinder which was connected to a stable platform that was stable though it was a challenge to make a wheel axle.
Another in a series of discoveries without which the development of civilization would be impossible is the discovery of the use of iron. Around 4000 BC started to appear objects made of iron from the meteorite.
The earliest known pieces of wrought iron are dating from Gerzean period (ancient Egyptian culture in the valley of the River Nile) 3500 BC and were made of meteoric iron. The first use of iron ore obtained by melting is dating back to Mesopotamia. However, the earliest use of traditional techniques of melting and purification of ore that modern society considers real wrought iron is from the Hittite culture, 2000 BC.
Up to 1000 BC, knowledge of the use of iron spread from the Middle East to Greece and the Aegean area and to western parts and arrived in central Europe around 600 BC. However, iron was exclusively used for practical purposes, for making weapons and tools until the middle Ages.
In the Iron Age era, tools and weapons that were preferred to be the best were made out of steel, and steel weapons were stronger compared to bronze made weapons though it is hard to produce with the methods available.
While those that had high carbon content were extremely hard, the disadvantage is that a brittle material could not be tempered, softened or annealed. Thus alloys that were easy to make became famous such as wrought iron at a lower price.
However, Alloys that had less carbon such as Wrought Iron could not be heat treated to the required degree thus leading to them experiencing low hardness.
Code of Hammurabi represents the most famous and best preserved ancient Mesopotamia’s Code. It was found in 1901 in the Iranian city of Susa, where was brought by Elam king Shutruk-Nakhunte in 12th century BC as a plunder. The text is written on the black diorite stele, 2.62 m high. It is now at the Louvre Museum.
The Code consists of three parts: prologue, provisions and epilogue. In the prologue is said that Hammurabi was sent by the gods to Earth to establish peace, order, and justice. The second part contains 282 short provisions. In the final part Hammurabi states its merits, promising divine rewards for those who respect the Code and cursed those who do not comply.
The Code was applied in all of Mesopotamia even after Hammurabi's death. The principle of “a tooth for a tooth” was in effect literally as a person who has injured somebody should be punished in a similar way.
Illogicalities and contradictions are also found in this law. Before the existence of justice, there existed in Mesopotamia a royal prorogation. Not only does this bill contain judicial rulings but also all the territories and town attached to the Babylonian Kingdom. To the people, this stele was more than a tool for education but rather a code that consisted of prescriptions and rules laid down by the sovereign authority and thus referred to as a code of laws. The Hammurabi code acted as a literary model for the Scribes schools whose primary aim was to copy for over a century.
According to Mesopotamia citizens, the law is seen as a model that exercise judicial powers since the particular were seen never to govern the general public. This law is not what in today’s society we define as a code of legislation but rather, a legal precedent that deals with personal elements (such as the protagonist's name) that have already been removed.
People have always felt the need to record an important event or to leave behind a clue, picture or written word, and it led to one of the greatest human invention - letters. Letter forms can be divided into several developmental forms: alphabets, syllabary, logographic.
Some Phoenician alphabets spread to Greece in the 8th century and was widely used, improving record-keeping process. Other Phoenician characters were kept and others removed. The alphabet made the writing process easy, encouraging many people to start writing. Alphabet gives an order in words and sentences and it is easy to work with.Today, 3/4 of the world population lives in countries where the alphabet is the national system of writing.
Before the alphabet became a big deal, writing was pictographic in nature and was produced by a stylus being pressed into soft clay. The older method of writing needed many symbols when trying to locate a word and this made writing hard and limited to a group of people.
Over time, the precious metals, gold, and silver, took the role of money. The reason for this is that they are very rare in nature, in their preparation is necessary to invest a lot of work, for a small amount of money one can get a large amount of goods and gold has physical and chemical constancy and permanence. The value of certain coins is generally accepted convention. For that guaranteed the ruler of the state or property.
Money was a precious commodity that improved the trading lives of people.
When as the means of payment people began to use precious metals, it was also a start of frauds so situation called for new ideas. Therefore, it was soon introduced that each coin must have impressed following information: the weight of the coin, fineness of metal, and mark of mint that made coin. Such money, similar to today’s, originated in the 7th century BC, that is, before 2700 years, in a small country called Lydia in Asia Minor. This primitive money was produced from Electrum, a natural alloy of gold and silver.
Money is the life of the economic system, because it allows the flow of goods and services. It is hard to define what money is because many people have different ideas on what it means. In the past, traders used to exchange goods without money. The traders went to markets and they exchanged what they had with what those in the market were offering.
For example, if someone had a goat and wanted a cow, he gave out his goat in exchange of a cow. Cowry shell was also a popular means of exchange in China before the invention of money. People would carry cowry shell to the market as the mode of payment and it was convenient for them.
is a symbol of success and failure, a motivational tool; it is power for generals in the war, and for the revolutionaries – shackles of labor, the cause of crime, the initiator of the whole world. People are infatuated with money and adjust their whole lives to it. But the money does not only affect the morale and an ideal since without it functioning of the economy is unthinkable.
In the 6th century BC in India emerged a new learning or rather a philosophy of life, Buddhism. The founder of Buddhism was Siddhartha Gautama, under whose spiritual title, Buddha this learning is named.
At the age of 29, Siddhartha, the prince of Nepal left the comfort of his home and his wife and children, becoming a wondering ascetic. Siddhartha started to meditate until he finally found the light. Just like other religions, he gathered disciples around him and taught them what he believed to be the truth.
Although Buddhism is not the biggest religion, it is widely practiced, especially by Indians. Normally in Buddhism, anyone who wishes to join must undergo a series of meditation and teachings to fully understand it. Siddhartha taught his disciples until they were capable of teaching others and encourage them to join Buddhism. The religion is also practiced in other parts of the world.
The aim of the Buddha's teachings is the revival or liberation of mind by leaving hate, thirst and ignorance, and reaching nirvana, the state of the greatest happiness and the end of suffering. Although Buddhism is often seen as apolitical religion, it has always exercised considerable political influence in the countries where it is present.
The ancient polis is not only a way of social organization in ancient Greece, but also of the concept of democracy which emerged as the fairest system that we know. It was founded in the 6th century BC. The formation of political affairs in Athens was based on two criteria, both of which are closely connected with each other: the openness of political decisions and the growing pressure towards rational explanation. There is also a third criterion and it is democratization. It was necessary to organize social and political life, where all citizens will be able to participate.
Solon, an Athenian statesman , lawmaker , and poet, is the one to be credited since he was one of the most important legislators of ancient Athens. He wanted through legislation to limit individual’s self-will. Originality of ancient Greece consists in a special format of power that the government of the Polis (city) had, i.e. the creation of the ancient Polis which assumes full-fledged participation of all citizens in the management of joint activities in full public collective decisions.
Political life of ancient Greece, as never before then, in the Agora (square) becomes the subject of free speech (isogoria) of citizens equal before the law (isonomia) to whom the Polis is common concern. As no one would have political leverage, authority is not placed in any particular group (demos, aristocracy, nobility), but is given to the members of the political community as a whole. All of these are characteristics of the first and most famous of all democracy, democracy of ancient Athens.
One of the personalities that certainly marked the history of civilization is the famed philosopher Aristotle. He crucially determined European philosophy and science. Born into a family of highly educated doctors, Aristotle came in Plato's academy as an eighteen-year-old and remained there for twenty years.
Macedonian king Philip called him to be the teacher of his son Alexander the Great, and when he came to the throne and began his march to Asia, Aristotle in 335 BC returned to Athens and in the training area (γυμνάσıον) in the grove, consecrated to Apollo, founded his own philosophical school Lyceum (Λύκεıον), which people often called the peripatetic (because the teaching was performed during a walk - περίπατος in the training area) and his disciples and followers peripatetic’s.
Aristotle was also a great author who inspired many by his works and mentored other authors through his literary skills. Aristotle made a great contribution in the fields of biology and ethics. In Greek where he comes from, he was simply known as the first teacher and the West referred to him as one of the greatest philosopher.
Aristotle run the school until 323 BC when after Alexander’s death, in the atmosphere of anti -Macedonian moods he was accused of atheism and banished from Athens and withdrew in Chalkida on the island of Euboea, where he died one year later. Over time, Aristotle's significance increasingly grew, so the Arabs and Christian thinkers of the Middle Ages have simple called him Philosopher.
Alexander the Great , who lived for only 33 years, was a son of Philip II and Olympia’s (daughter of the king of Epirus). Since he was tutored by Aristotle, he was greatly informed. He took control of Companion Calvary at eighteen years to help his father, and then he became the king after his father's death in 336 BC.
Cities that Alexander the Great founded were initially because of military reasons, but in the end, they were centers for facilitating the penetration of Greek culture to the East. Penetration consequences were felt for several centuries after his death, likewise, the penetration of the Greek language, which suppressed Aramaic, a language in Persia. His conquests brought closer the Greek and Eastern cultures, affirmed the principle of universal authority and left deep cultural and historical implications.
In 334 BC he entrusted Antipater, his friend and a outstanding statesman, to rule over Macedonia and Greece and with 30 000 infantry soldiers and 5000 cavalry members went to Persia, crossed into Asia Minor, defeated the Persian army at the river Granicus, and after that almost the whole of Asia Minor came under his control.
Jesus Christ is the founder of Christianity, the most populous and most important religious group in the world. Its influence, to this day, only grew in the world. According to Christians, Jesus is the founder of Christianity and that he was conceived through the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary. Name of Jesus himself is the name of the historical Jesus of Nazareth, while confessional title Christ eventually became the second component of his name. The time of his birth marked the start of the Christian era. He grew up in a Jewish family in Nazareth so in the Gospels he is often called Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus the Nazarene.
By profession he was a carpenter. About his life until his thirties we know nothing, and then, after the baptism in the Jordan River and the temptations in the desert, he began his public ministry in Galilee, Judea, and Jerusalem. Occasionally he ventured in pagan lands (Tyre, Sidon, Decapolis, and Caesarea Philippi). The last days before the Passion and death he spent in Jerusalem. In public preaching and activities he was proclaiming the kingdom of God. In that Old Testament’s term Jesus introduced new content and nuances. It no longer means anticipation of the earthly kingdom, but spiritual.
Christians believe in death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. His death and resurrection were meant to redeem humankind. Performance of miracles by Jesus in the Gospel highlight that he was the promised one. He performed mighty miracles not for his own glory but because of undying love and compassion. Christians believe in the second coming of the Messiah, the day of reckoning. Jesus also taught beatitudes, special teachings for the people. Some of the beatitudes include blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted, blessed are the pure in hear, for they shall see God, and blessed are the peacemakers for they shall be called sons of God.
In 632 AD Muhammad went on farewell pilgrimage to Mecca, which formally established the Hajj. There he gave a farewell speech that ends the Quran revelations. After returning to Medina, he died the same year and was buried in his mosque. Muhammad to its successors (Caliphs) left established Muslim community and organized state of Madinah as a starting point for their conquests of the Byzantine Empire and Persia.
From 17th century in France the term feudalism started to indicate a general system of relations in society. The Feudal system gained popularity in the 8th century when the Carolingian empire was expanding its borders. Martel Charles gives his nobles rights to get the income with which they can offer fighting men for his force. The act of goodness needs an oath of loyalty. The biggest fiefs are the ones issued directly to noblemen by monarchs who then delegates parts of the fiefs to vassals and only in this way can king’s vassal bring their promised men to join the army.
Hence, In western type of feudalism whole society has the shape of a pyramid: at its top is the supreme proprietor, who was supreme senior or ruler (king); he has his vassals, to which he confers feud as a whole dukedoms. These royal vassals continue to confer feud again to their vassals and thus become their seniors, and the construction continues downward, and a senior vassal has lower vassals etc. Pyramid was based on serfs as basic producers.
In Europe, compass was introduced in 12th century and has since been used in navigation. It consists of lightweight magnets and the most common form of needle, which is free to rotate around a vertical axis, while under the influence of Earth's magnetic field arises in the direction of magnetic field lines, and thus shows the direction of the magnetic poles of the Earth.
Compass has greatly influenced the sailors and discovery of new places and continents. For example, the need to find a sea route to India, where has via Arab traders become known in Europe because of its spices, precious materials, precious stones, etc has become a particularly topical and even urgent after the Turks at the beginning of the 15th century conquered the whole Middle East, and the then only links and trade routes have become dangerous. However, with the compass' help, people overcame all these obstacles so that they would have well trade development.
The most common type of compass used a lodestone and a bronze plate. A lodestone carried was naturally carved on a flat bronze plate and it spun around, stopping a north-south direction. Another kind of compass was created by putting iron needles that were rubbed with lodestone on wood, floating in water, that made it to spin around. Originally, the ancient Chinese used compasses to gain wealth, and to maintain peace with the environment. At times, the Chinese used a compass to foretell their future.
Closely 600 before printing press was invented, monks from China used to set ink on paper using a method known as block printing and in this method, wooden blocks were coated with ink and then pressed to a sheet of paper. An example of a book that was printed using the coated method was the ancient Buddhist document known as the Diamond Sutra, created in 868 in China and the book was sealed in a cave for a thousand years before it was discovered in 1900. The carved blocks of woods used for the early printing technique was also applied in Korea and Japan in the early 18th century.
The real beginnings of printing in today's terms were motivated by the desire that books become available to a wider range of people. The transition from manuscript to printed book enabled the use of woodcuts, which were originally used as a printing form for printing illustrations and the text subsequently corresponded. For books printed between 1430 and 1480 were made the woodcuts for printing and text and illustrations.
The basis of modern printing started J. Gutenberg, who in 1440 began to apply movable letters and press for printing. Printing color was put on the letters, then on it was pressed the moistened paper, with using printing presses. Thus, in such way in 1445 Gutenberg printed Bible, in an edition of 100 to 200 copies. Books that have been printed until 1500 in this way are called incunabula, and from 16th century they started to distinguish more from the manuscripts and to take on formats and forms that are in use today.
Man's happiness and well-being have become the central motif of creativity in the new culture. Humanists looked up to the Greek and Roman culture, so it seemed like the ancient culture started to be renewed. Hence, this new culture is called the Renaissance.
The Renaissance was a time of "coming out of the dark", and it was an explosion of ideas, education, and literacy. It produced some of the greatest artwork and artists in history. Even today, the buildings and streets of Rome, Florence, and many other Italian cities are filled with stunning Renaissance art and architecture.
Humanism and the Renaissance first emerged in Italy. The most famous center of Humanism in Italy was rich city of Florence and other cities, such as Venice, Genoa, Pisa, Milan and Rome. Humanism is the period of late medieval history marked by the desire of acquiring knowledge and following classical Roman and Greek literature and civilization. The origins were in the Italian cities in the 14th century, but humanism really flourished during the 15th century, when it spread to most of Europe.
Construction of the heliocentric system was revolutionary and far-reaching break with old understandings. In contrast to accepted understanding that the Earth is the center of the universe, he emphasized that the Earth is just one of the planets orbiting around the Sun. Through his work, Copernicus founded modern astronomy. His teachings have followers and successors, as well as opponents. The church in 1616 banned all scientific works that were based on Copernican doctrine. However, the ban was removed in 1757 for Copernicus ‘work and in 1835 from other works.
The ideas of Nicolaus Copernicus were instrumental in the evolution of the field of astronomy. Virtually every notable astronomer who proceeded him was vastly influenced by his theories. Galileo, Johannes Kepler, and others were among the astronomers who sought to add to and improve upon his work.
Shakespeare's works show that he was a great psychologist, a connoisseur of men in all aspects of human emotions: joy and sorrow, love and hate, honesty and hypocrisy, kindness and ruthlessness, modesty and gluttony. However, Shakespeare does not deal with these issues but is rather using them as a means to show the man with all its virtues and defects.
William Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in the late 16th and early 17th century, but today is large-scale of fame gained in the 19th century when the Romantics elevated his genius and the Victorians celebrated him almost like an idol. Even today, his dramas are played and interpreted. Shakespeare's genius is reflected in the fact that his works have universal themes that are still present in today's world.
In central and northern Europe, reformers such as John Calvin challenged paper authority and put the Catholic Church under questions to state its ability to define Christian practices. The reformers argued that a political and a religious distribution of power into the hands of the Bible, The disruption cause wars, killings and counter-reformation.
The dissolution of the feudal system, the invention of printing, which allowed the emergence of the Bible in the vernacular, and on the other, spiritual humanist critique of the clergy and their way of life and individual mysticism eroded the church's authority and strengthen the efforts for the return to the Christian roots. The cause of the Reformation was also in friction between individual towns and churches as well as in strengthening authorities of the electoral princes who sought greater influence on the church. There were also pamphlets against the pope and the clergy that expressed social dissatisfaction.
It is strange that the electricity has been studied for thousands of years, and still we do not know exactly what it is!!!
According to a contemporary understanding, every substance is consisting of tiny, charged particles. According to this theory, the electricity is typically the flow or the presence of the electron or other charged particles. Electricity can be transferred from one body to the other.
Benjamin Franklin tried to explain what electricity is. According to Franklin, all substances in nature contain "electrical fluid". Rubbing against each other certain amount of fluid is transferred from one place to another, as surplus. Today we would say that this is a fluid consisting of negatively charged electrons.
The difference between the meteorite and metallurgical iron is in the higher contents of nickel in meteorite. This iron occurs in the great civilizations (such as the tomb of Empress in Egypt in the late 4th millennium).
Code emphasized the legal inequality of different social layers. The type and severity of the penalty imposed to the offender depend on what social class belongs the victim or the offender, in particular, is it a free man or a slave.
Alphabet is phonetic and is a very simple system of writing invented to make it serve the masses. It has a big advantage compared to other systems of writing, because it contains fever symbols, making it easier to learn and use. It is based on the letters that symbolize phonemes. The three main alphabets are Latin, Arabic, and Cyrillic.
The Phoenician alphabet was created around 1000 BC, which served as a basis for further research. It had 22 simple looking letters. Since that alphabet was inherited from the Semitic tradition, the letters only represented a consonant and were written from right to left. They called letters alef, bet, gimel, dalet ... which meant: ox, house, boomerang, and door.
Alexander improved the army that was left to him by his father and also strengthened the army. He was identified with great communication skills, the use of special weapons and skilled engineers. Alexander was flawless in his operations and had a good speed. he consolidated power in Macedonia, with army penetrated into Greece, which wanted to defend against Macedonia, and in Corinth summoned the envoys of all Greek states except Sparta. In 335 BC he penetrated to the Danube to protect Macedonia from intrusion from the north. Then he went to Greece (where, in his absence uprising happened) and destroyed Thebes.
Humanism was identified with lots of interest and creativity in the humanities and arts that were brought about by scientific knowledge and a thorough consideration for of governance. In this period started to emerge a new philosophy, literature, art, and everywhere a man stands out as the focus of the teachings of literature and art.
A special place has the reformation that arose from Martin Luther's doctrine that led to the schism of the Western Church, the emergence of independent evangelical churches, and formation of Protestantism as new Christian denomination. Resulting in special conditions, Luther's Reformation grew into a movement that led to a turning point in the completely Western world. Humanism and the Renaissance, the discovery of the New World was an important event.
The truth is that the discovery of electricity is a complicated matter and goes back when the Greek used to rub fur on amber, causing attraction between the two objects.
Volta discovered a certain chemical reactions that could produce electricity and was the first person to come up with a steady flow of electrical charge. Volta also created the first transmission of electricity by creating a link between positively and negatively charged connections. After Volta, many other scientists enhanced our understanding of moving and static electrical charges and among the researchers was Michael Faraday, who discovered that magnets in motion move electrical charge.
Probably the most significant advances in the science of electricity began when Alessandro Volta in 1800 invented the first battery. This battery gave the world's first permanent, reliable source of electricity and has led to all the important discoveries in connection with the use of electricity.
History is said to be the past events that happened many years ago. The history of man can be traced to centuries ago. The past year's man had tiny knowledge of technology and inventing, but their history has contributed to enormous events of change today.
Study the past if you would define the future.
Many events have contributed to the variations in the modern humans. People’s every movement significantly influences our society. We want a better and more convenient lives, so they want to invent more, and the invention of new technology gives life meaning. We pursue liberty and equality, so we get new idea and keep improving our social system.
To future people, the things we do today is their history, and I believe that the events, inventions, and place we create today will also impact the civilization of mankind.