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Red River and Northwest Rebellions Timeline (1812-1885)
Transcript of Red River and Northwest Rebellions Timeline (1812-1885)
Red River Colony is set up by Thomas Douglas. The colonization project is set on 300,000 square kilometers of land.
It covers portions of Southern Manitoba, northern Minnesota, eastern North Dakota, and smaller parts of eastern Saskatchewan, northwestern Ontario, and northeastern South Dakota.
Thomas Douglas makes available to Scottish farmers who have been displaced from their lands and are eager to start a new life in Canada.
1812 also marked the year when the War of 1812 was set into motion.
The War of 1812 was was caused by a series of economic sanctions taken by the British and French against the US as part of the Napolenic Wars and American outrage at the British Practice of impressment.
Governor Macdonell issues a Pemmican Proclamation on January 8th 1814 in an attempt to monopolize the regions provision trade. This prohibits the export of provisions from the region.
By doing this, Macdonell undermines the security of the Red River Colony and plunges them into conflict with the Northwest Company that doesn't end until 1821.
George Simpson, a Scottish sugar broker, is named the new head of the Hudson's Bay Company. This was the Hudson's Bay Company period of greatest power.
Lord Selkirk recruits another party of settlers for the Red River colony. However, just before his forty-ninth birthday Selkirk dies.
In 1821 the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company decide to merge.
Thomas Douglas, The Earl of Selkirk
This period of time was relatively peaceful in the Red River colony.
The Red River Colony was changing rapidly. Rupert's Land was transferred from the HBC to the government, and this was done without the consent of the people who lived in the area.
The Métis had not made legal claims on the land they farmed on, so Canada laid grids for towns and farms without taking them into consideration. Around this time, Louis Riel was chosen as the leader of the Métis.
Louis Riel sets up a provisional government to negotiate with the federal government and to maintain order.
The Métis National Committee had no desire to rebel, and they wanted to ensure their rights would be protected when Red River was transferred to Canadian authority.
On March 4th Thomas Scott, an orangeman, was executed by a firing squad. On May 2nd, 1870 the province of Manitoba was confederated with Canada. The land that was occupied by the Métis was not taken, and a large section of land was reserved for them. After the rebellion was over, Louis Riel fled to the United States.
Louis Riel arrives in Canada, and holds a secret meeting with the Métis, and he sends a petition to Secretary of State outlining Métis grievances and demands.
March 26th, 1885
The battle of Duck Lake is underway. Cree and Metis fighters, led by Gabriel Dumont force NWMP to retreat to safety. These fighters ambushed and overpowered the NWMP
May 1st, 1885
The battle of Cut Knife begins, and Chief Fine Day ambushes and surronds the military at Cut Knife. Chief Pundmaker convinces Fine Day to call off his attack and let the troops go.
May 12th, 1885
The Battle of Battoche was on May 12th 1885, and Louis Riel stepped in and asked Dumont to stop using gurellia warfare tactics. 900 government forces, surronded Batoche and the 300 Metis, Cree, and Dakota forces defending the fort. After a few days, Riel surrendered and Dumont fled the country.
July 3rd 1885
John A. Macdonald has charged Louis Riel with charges of treason. The trial took place with a jury composed entirely of English/Scottish Protestants. The jury eventually found Riel guilty of treason, but asked the court to not execute him. The judge ignored the plea, and sentenced Riel to death anyway.
July 3rd, 1885
Riel is hung for treason. Many people suspect the real reason he was executed was because he executed Thomas Scott during the Red River Rebellion in 1870. For some, he is seen as a hero and for others he is seen as a traitor.