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The British Empire

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Seyit Edebali

on 9 February 2015

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Transcript of The British Empire

The British Empire
on which the sun never sets
Origins
First British Empire (1583 - 1783)
World War I
presented by Seyit Riza Edebali
basis
facts
was the largest empire in history
covered 33,67 million km², 1/4 of earth's total land are; 458 million people (1/4 of earth's population at that time
encompassed territories ( dominions, colonies, protectorate, mandates) on
every
continent
15th-16th century: Portugal and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe & established large oversea empires
prosperity
protestant England sanctioned attacks on catholic Spain's and Portugal's ships and ports in the Americas
influential writers such as John Dee & Richard Hakluyt started to press the establishment of England's own empire
London
1578: Queen Elizabeth l. granted a patent to Humphrey Gilbert for discovery and overseas exploration
Classification of territories
Colonies
areas directly ruled by a governor on behalf of the british government and representing the crown
Protectorates
territories ruled by a local ruler in all aspects but defense and foreign affairs
Dominions
semi-independent polities with significant freedom
Mandates
former German and Turkish colonies given to Britain and France in order to prepare for self-government
1583: arrival on Newfoundland
no permanent settlement
1584: foundation of the first settlement Roanoke (N.Carolina) by Walter Raleigh
failed due to lacking supply
successful sugar cane plantation on St.Kittis, Barbados & Nevi (circa 1620)
met demand of slave work by acquisition from the Dutch
1672: foundation of Royal African Company
supply of English colonies with african slaves
1607: establishment of the first permanent settlement in Jamestown/Virginia
1688: end of English-Dutch rivalry in Asia;
deal: Netherlands control spice trade on Indonesia, while Britain control textile trade in India
1714: Britain, Portugal, and Holy Roman Empire beat France and Spain in the War of the Spanish Succession Britain gains Newfoundland, Acadia, Gibraltar, Minorca & the rights to asiento
Loss of the Thirteen American Colonies
as of 1760s: rising tension and resentments to British Parliament due to attempts govern and tax American colonists without their consent "No taxation without representation"
first settlements in West-Africa
American Revolution: rejection of parliamentary authority, moves to self-government etc.
Britain response with "Intolerable Acts"
1775: outbreak of the War of Independence
1776: Declaration of Independence
1781: decisive defeat of British Army in Yorktown
1783: acknowledgment of independence
Second British Empire (1783 - 1815)
shift of attention to Asia, the Pacific and Africa
1770: James Cook discovers Australia and claims New Zealand
first fleet arrives Australia in 1788
1815: defeat of Napoleonic France
Britain obtains Ionian Islands, Malta, Mauritius, St.Lucia, Tobago, Trinidad, Guyana, Cape Colony
1807: Slave Trade Act: prohibition of slave trade in entire empire
1833: Slavery Abolition Act: prohibition of slavery
stabilize rule in India after victory over Moguls
Imperial Century (1815 - 1914)
"splendid isolation" use of geographical conditions to keep out of continentaleuropean conflicts
Pax Britannica unchallenged british hegemony
The Great Game
rivalry with Russia in central Asia
agreement on spheres of influence in 1878
"Scramble for Africa" occupation of Cape Colony & Sudan, submission of Egypt, conquest of Rhodesia "Cape to Cairo"
origin of dominions:
1867 union of Upper & Lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to Dominion of Canada;
1901 union of australian colonies to Australia;
1910 South African Union
Treaty of Versailles: the empire reached its greatest extent (addition of 4,7 km² & 13 million people)
New territories: Palestine, Transjordan, Iraq, Tanganjika and Parts of Cameroon and Togo
Inter-War Period
1919-1921: Irish War of Independence
Origin of Irish Free State
1919: Massacre of Amritsar
1922: Independence of Egypt
1932: Independence of Iraq
1926: Balfour Declaration
Decolonization
Independence
India & Pakistan (1947)
Ceylon & Burma (1948)
Israel & Ireland (1949)
Sudan (1956)
Malaysia (1957)
Cyprus (1960)
Malta (1964)
Canada (1982)
Brunei (1984)
Australia & New Zealand (1986)
Hong Kong (1997)
Commonwealth of Nations
founded in 1931
member states: 53
intergovernmental organization
territories of the former British Empire
united by language, history, culture, rule of law
covers more than 29,9 km², 1/4 of earth's land area
estimated population: 2,3 billion (1/3 of earth's population
Criteria
be fully sovereign states
recognize the monarch of Britain as Head of Commonwealth
accept English language as communication
have a link to the British Empire
Members
Full transcript