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Short-Term (Acute) Effects of Exercise (P1, P2)

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alex siracusa

on 14 May 2013

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Transcript of Short-Term (Acute) Effects of Exercise (P1, P2)

P1. describe the musculoskeletal and energy systems response to acute exercise P2. describe the cardiovascular and respiratory systems responses to acute exercise Musculoskeletal (muscles, bones, joints) Energy Systems Cardiovascular Respiratory Short Term There is a lot of short term effect on this system one of the main ones being that when we start to exercise and our heart starts to pump blood faster our muscles warm up, which makes them more elastic so they are less likely to tear a muscle. This also happens to our ligaments and tendons which is another effect as they allow for greater movement for example a dancer would be able to stretch the muscles apart more and would be able to perform things such as splits. Exercise also causes our body to produce more synovial fluid which keeps are joints lubricated so the bones don't cause damage when rubbing against each other, this mainly happens in the knee's but also in other joints.
Another effect on muscles is that they have increased blood flow allowing them to create more ATP in the muscle cells which thereby creates more energy for our muscles to use for exercise. Which is why our muscles warm up so much when exercising since so much warm blood gets pumped to our moving muscles which also create friction between the muscle fibers. This relates to why it is so important for athletes to warm up so they don't tear any muscles and can generate quicker and more accurate movements and also move in a wider range of movement and making our muscles more efficient. The main short term effect that happens to the cardiovascular system is our heart rate increases during exercise. Depending on how hard your working our heart rate will increase, if your exercising hard for long periods our heart rate will keep increasing until reaching a peak. Even before exercise our heart rate will start to increase as the brains knows you are about to and releases small amounts of adrenaline which increase heart rate ready for exercise which is called the anticipatory response.
From the moment the anticipatory response kicks in our cardiac output is increased which means our heart pumps more blood per minute so when your heart rate increases so does your cardiac output because when we exercise our muscles are used which require more oxygen so our heart rate increases which thereby increases our cardiac output to get more oxygen rich blood to our muscles. Also our stroke volume increases which is the amount of blood that is pumped out of the heart in one beat.
Another short term effect is that when we exercise our blood pressure increases since our heart pumps faster. Which then increases our flow rate which increases the speed at which blood is delivered to our muscles
Vasodilation and vasoconstriction is what make the blood travel to were it is needed such as our muscles, lungs and hearts and away from were it is not needed such as inactive organs which makes the system more efficient.
Another short term effect is that the blood vessels in our skin dilate to let more blood come to the surface of our skin which helps keep ourselves cool during exercise, since exercise generates heat in our muscles. All types of exercise require energy but the amount needed depends on the intensity and duration. exercises such as 100M sprints need alot of energy for a short duration of time, but events like marathons require a medium, consistent energy supply for a long period of time, and all enegy is used to contract muscles. Energy comes from a few things. From our diet, mostly carbohydrates such as potato's or pasta, but also comes from the oxygen in the air we breath. When we breath air in it enters our blood through the alveoli in our lungs and is absorbed by the hemoglobin in our blood which our heart then pumps around our body into the cells in our muscles. Inside the cells in the muscles is an organelle called mitochondria which turns the oxygen into ATP which is then used as the fuel for energy. Creatine phosphate energy system
This energy system is an instant energy and is used for exercises that require short bursts of hard energy like sprinting. The primary source of this system is ATP and is boosted by creatine. A supplement which is high in creatine is taken by professional runners such as Usain Bolt and creatine increases the energy his muscles can store at one moment, so when the ATP is running low creatine helps resupply the ATP, and more creatine means you would be able to sprint faster or lift heavier weights. When you use up all the creatine, you start to become fatigued and exhausted and start to slow down and move to the aerobic system. Lactic acid system
This energy system is a short term energy system however its not as short term as the phosphate energy system and would be best for a 400M sprint, but it wouldn't be good for any long term events the energy comes from the breakdown of glucose and glycogen which produce ATP and no oxygen is used in this process so the body is working anaerobically. The system can put up with 60-90 seconds of high intensity work and can be done on this system. However the problem with this system is that it produces lactic acid which defuses into the blood and muscles. However if it doesn't defuse it builds up and can cause discomfort in the muscles and muscles don't contract properly and causes cramps, the easiest way to get rid of lactic acid is to exercise more and make sure you do a good cool down after exercise. Running on this system can cause fatigue and you will need to slow down and move to aerobic. Aerobic energy system
This system is used in long distances of exercise as it uses oxygen which we have no shortage of and is constantly available it would be used in places such as marathons, as you are running at a steady pace for a long duration of time and don't require bursts of energy. during everyday exercise such as walking to work this system is used however this energy system is slow to produce energy so the body also breaks down any food and stored fat to help this energy system keep up with demands. When at a slow pace your body would use fat as the energy source and would brake it down with enzymes, but if you are on this system and speed up you will move on to your lactic acid system. There are a few short term effect of exercise on the respiratory system, the most common being that when we exercise we breath more deeply and faster in order to take in more oxygen and release carbon dioxide which is called our tidal volume. On average at resting rates we take in around 15 breaths per minute, but when we exercise this increases. Another effect would be that the diaphragm muscles work harder and stretch further in order for the lungs to expand more and take more air in at once. as we exercise at a high capacity our breathing rate increases by a lot but each person has there own maximum breathing rate which is called VO2 maximum. So during exercise vital capacity increases to keep up with demands for energy being used by our muscles.
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