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7.05 Le Châtelier’s Principle
Transcript of 7.05 Le Châtelier’s Principle
In general the Haber Process combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen derived mainly from natural gas (methane) into ammonia. The reaction is reversible and the production of ammonia is exothermic. (Clark, 2013) In the agricultural industry the produced ammonia by the Haber-Bosch process is used as fertilizer to put nitrogen into soils for plants.
2. Who developed or discovered this process? When? What country was he or she from?
The person who developed the Haber process was a German chemist, Fritz Haber. He developed it in 1905 and the process was scaled up by BASF's great chemist and engineer, Carl Bosch. That is the reason why the process is sometimes called the Haber-Bosch process.
3. Provide a short paragraph providing some historical background. Why is, or was, this an important chemical process?
The Haber Process was developed at the beginning or the twentieth century, leading up to WWI. Growing militancy was demanded for more explosives which called for natural nitrate resources. Then, The German chemical engineer Carl Bosch had assisted Haber in converting the method into an industrial process, by 1914. The food that the Haber process allowed to be produced sustained Germany's war effort and prolonged the war. This was a very important chemical process because it produces ammonia which is used for many common day things.
07.05 Le Châtelier’s Principle
The Haber Process
Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction, including the energy term. Is it an endothermic or exothermic reaction?
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) (The Haber Process) The production of ammonia is exothermic.
6. Under what temperature, pressure, and other conditions is this reaction typically carried out? How does this relate to the conditions you previously explained?
Nitrogen and hydrogen could maybe be combined at an elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst. The experiment can be carried out with a temperature of 500 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 200 atmospheres. This part of the question relates to question 3 because in order to have an accurate experiment you must have the accurate conditions for The Haber Process.
5. Use Le Chatelier's principle to explain the conditions that favor the forward reaction.
Le Chatelier's principle says: If a change is imposed on a system at equilibrium, the position of the equilibrium will shift in a direction that helps to reduce the effect of that change. So the condition that favor a forward reaction is when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction.
7. What safety, cost, or other considerations prevent most industrial applications from using the most ideal conditions for high yield of the product?
Most industrial applications are prevented from using the most ideal conditions for high yield of the product probably because of the lack of knowledge and ability in building and maintaining the high pressure equipment needed to carry out the reaction and a lack of knowledge about the chemistry of the catalysts needed.
8. What catalyst, if any, is used for this reaction?
One catalyst could be a mixture of iron and iron oxide. You could also increase the efficiency of the reaction by adding aluminum.