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APUSH Period 9 (1980-present)

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Sarah Ward

on 6 April 2018

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Transcript of APUSH Period 9 (1980-present)

APUSH Period 9 (1980-present)
create an annotated time line of the NEW LEFT and NEW RIGHT. Write a well developed thesis explaining the rise of new conservatism in modern America
Tax reform & cuts
- proposition 13
Conservative religious revival
- Moral Majority
elimination of racial preferences
- Affirmative Action
De-regulation of Business
- "think tanks" like Heritage Foundation

supply-side economics
- aka "Reaganomics" or "trickle down"
tax & spending cuts
anti-labor unions
conservative repeals on social issues
budget & trade deficits
- tax cuts & military spending = growing federal
deficits, national debt triples, "debtor nation"
Was the impact of Reaganomics ultimately positive or negative for the economy of the United States?
identify 5 points each with historical evidence and write a well developed thesis defending your position
Renewing the Cold War w/ the Soviet Union
- military build up i.e. the SDI "Star Wars"
Iran-Contra Affair (1986)
- U.S. secretly sold weapons to Iran in exchange
for American hostages, uses funds to support
Nicaraguan contras
Middle East
- 1982 Lebanon: Israel vs PLO
- 1983 Beruit Embassy bombing
Improved U.S.-Soviet Relations
- 1985, Gorbachev
- 1987, "tear down this wall"

the end of the Cold War
election of 1988
- "read my lips - no new taxes"
- GOP wins Presidency, Dems increase majority
in House & Senate

Foreign policy - changes in Communist world
- 1989, Tiananmen Square
- Communists of Eastern Europe lose power
- Germany reunited
- 1991, Soviet Union breaks dissolves
- 1991 & 1992, START I & II agreements
Foreign policy - redefining America's post Cold War role
- 1989, invasion of Panama
- 1990, Persian Gulf War, 1991 "Operation Desert Storm"

Domestic Issues
- nomination of Clarence Thomas
- S&L taxes & growing federal budget deficit
- 1990 recession
- 1990 AWD Act seen as only legislative accomplishment
Why was Bush a 1 term President?
Compare & contrast the importance of Bush's foreign policy accomplishments with his perceived Domestic policy failures.

Prosperity & Partisanship
Election of 1992: Bush vs Clinton vs Perot
- anti-Washington, anti-incumbent environment
- Clinton wins as minority president (Perot pulls 20%)
Clinton's 1st term
- Republicans filibuster many legislative goals
- "Slick Willie" able to pass a handful of significant policies
* i.e. welfare reform, "don't ask don't tell," NAFTA
- 1994, Republicans take over Congress
* Newt Gingrich & the GOP's "Contract with America"
- 1996, Balanced budget passed

Election of 1996: Clinton vs Dole
- Clinton successfully claim's middle ground
- soaring economy & technology boom
* longest peacetime economic expansion in U.S. History
Clinton's 2nd term
- partisan battle over what to do with surplus
- investigations & impeachment
* 1998, House impeaches - Senate acquits

Foreign policy
- Madeline Albright, armed global peacekeepers
- globalization: World Trade Organization (WTO) & G-8 summits

American society in 2000
- 50% suburbs, 30% cities, 20% rural
- Hispanics are fastest growing segment of population
- Aging baby boomer generation, focus on healthcare & SS
- decline of traditional family
- Growing economy = increase in wealth & wealth disparity

What led to the economic boom of the 1990s?
Create an annotated timeline identifying the key economic turning points of the late 20th century. Choose the 5 most important, and evaluate their cause and effect
division influenced by increased regionalism
southern strategy: new leadership causes increase in conservatism and partisanship
gerrymandering rewards partisanship, discourages compromise in Congress
ELECTION of 2000: Gore vs Bush vs Nader
first to be decided by Supreme Court
- Gore +500,000 votes nationally, Bush + 537 in FL
- Supreme Court overrules recount on party lines 5-4

GEORGE W. BUSH - "compassionate conservatism"
conservative agenda: tax cuts, deregulation, federal aid to faith-based organizations, pro-life legislation, school choice, privatization of SS & Medicare, drilling for oil & voluntary industry standards
2001 & 2003 tax cuts - $1.35 trillion+ from budget surplus
- contributes to doubling of national debt during Bush presidency
Educational & Health reform
- No Child Left Behind Act
- prescription drug coverage to seniors
Economic Bubbles & corruption
- technology boom: peaks 2000, over by 2002
- stock market crashes, rise in unemployment, increase in poverty
- fraud & dishonesty by big business i.e. "cooking books"
- tech money moved to real estate, causes housing bubble
What synthesis can be applied between the election of 1992 and 2000?
Are there other elections, before or after, that can be synthesized into this theme as well?

"President Bush's confident and aggressive approach against terrorism won over many Americans, but often alienated other nations."
roots of terrorism: support for Israel, religious fundamentalism, U.S. troops stationed in Middle East, Middle Eastern politics & economy
- Osama Bin Laden & Al-Qaeda
- 1993, World Trade Center bombing
- 1998, U.S. embassies in Kenya & Tanzania
- U.S. attacks Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan & The Sudan
- Alliance formed between Al-Qaeda and The Taliban
September 11, 2001 - Al-Qaeda attacks World Trade Center & Pentagon
- nearly 3,000 deaths
- galvanizes American patriotism & support for war
2001, War in Afghanistan - pursuit of Al-Qaeda and Osama Bin Laden
- Taliban overthrown, American backed government & military installed
- Bin Laden escapes, Afghanistan remains unstable
2002, Iraq War - preemptive attack on Saddam Hussein & WMDs
- "Axis of Evil" = Iraq, Iran, & North Korea
- U.N. Security Council institutes inspections in Iraq, finds no WMDs
2003, Operation Iraqi Freedom - Bush declares war w/o support of UN
- U.S. and select allies take Baghdad & remove Saddam Hussein
- power vacuum: insurgents continue to fight U.S. and each other
- Millions of Iraqis become refugees of war
- pictures from Abu Ghraib America's reputation

Compare & contrast the policies of No Child Left Behind with its successor, Race to the Top.
Which was more effective at achieving its stated goals? What were the pros and cons of each program and its effect on society?
Research political cartoons that provide a commentary on 21st Cent. America
Add one example to the class google doc that represent each of the following:
American perspective that is pro-government
American perspective that is anti-government
International perspective that is pro America
International perspective that is anti-American
Select one cartoon from the collective examples and write a well developed persuasive paragraph supporting or opposing the author's point of view
Patriot Acts of 2001 & 2003
- unparalleled powers to U.S. Govt for surveillance & arrests
- Guantanamo Bay
Department of Homeland Security
- largest reorganization of dept since Dept of Defense after WWII
- combined 20 federal agencies
2004, Director of National Intelligence
Analyze the continuity and change of the public's view on the War on Terror and describe in one concise sentence how it developed

compare and contrast the public support/protest movements of the War on Terror with previous wars in modern American history
Vietnam War
ELECTION OF 2004: Bush vs. John Kerry
Conservative base galvanized by key issues of:
terrorism, tax cuts, and opposition to gay marriage & abortion
Republicans win and increase majorities in Congress & state houses
strongest position for party since 1920s
IRAQ - violence continues as Iraqis take responsibility for govt & defense
- 2007, troop "surge" to regain order in region
AFGHANISTAN - counter attacks from Taliban intensify
LEGACY left in 2008
- both wars in Middle East unresolved
- open efforts to deal with nuclear threat from IRAN & NORTH KOREA
- no major terrorist attack on U.S.since 9/11
privatization of Social Security (unpopular policy nationally, does not pass)
2005, Hurricane Katrina devastates New Orleans
- New Orleans devastated, 1,000+ people die
- Heavy criticism for Bush & FEMA over government's response
Supreme Court achieves conservative majority (Roberts & Alito)
2006, Democrats win control of Congress
housing bubble of 2002-2007 bursts
"liquidity crisis" - banks cannot provide loans necessary for functioning economy
other factors: gas prices, stock market drops 40%, rising unemployment
2008 - $170 billion stimulus package & govt intervention
Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 - $700B Troubled Assets Relief Program (TARP)

identify the top 5 causes of the Great Recession and connect them directly to their economic effects
ELECTION of 2008: Obama vs McCain
Obama & Biden - young, charismatic senator & experienced politician
McCain & Palin - political "maverick" and war hero & polarizing political outsider
Dem landslide: +7mil votes, 364 - 174 electoral college
-unpopular outgoing Republican administration, economic crisis, message of
hope & change, well funded grassroots campaign
- increase majorities in Congress
focused upon economic crisis - 2nd half of TARP, auto bailout
executive orders to overturn actions of Bush administration
Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act
fails to keep campaign promise of closing Guantanamo
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - $787B
Auto bailout & "cash for clunkers"
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010
- Bureau of Consumer Protection
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 aka Obamacare
- additional 25-30 million Americans covered
- subsidies, mandates, and insurance exchanges
- medical and insurance reforms to try and control health care costs
- covers preexisting conditions, >80% of premiums on medical care
- opposed by conservatives for regulations, costs, & personal mandate
Great Recession lowered tax base & increased govt spending
Baby Boom generation reaches retirement age, strain on entitlements
annual deficit triples, national debt from $9T to $16T
"Bowles-Simpson Plan" - eliminate deficit by 2035, $2 cut for every $1 increase in revenues. Failed to gain bipartisan support in Congress.
Tea Party - loose coalition opposed to national debt & Obamacare, right flank also pushing conservative values & social issues
2010 - Republicans take House of Reps, Dems keep Senate
budget stalemates, threats to default on debt andor shut down govt
2011 - cut $900B in spending, $1.4T of future cuts by super-committee
U.S. credit rating downgraded for first time in history
2012 Congress = least productive since 1947

IRAQ - gradual withdrawal from 2009 - 2011
- 4,500 US deaths, 32,000 wounded
- Sunni & Al-Qaeda continue to terrorize Shiite govt
AFGHANISTAN - made a top priority in War on Terror
- troop surges effective
- increased use of drones angers international community
Death of Osama Bin Laden, May 2011
- 2012 - U.S. takes supportive role to end mission by 2014
ARAB SPRING, 2010 - civil unrest & armed rebellion
- U.S. sympathy for pro-democracy protesters upsets Persian allies
- criticism at home for not intervening more forcefully in failed states
ASIA & EUROPE - limited by focus on Middle East
- Asia grows as economic power
- European allies encouraged by changes from Bush diplomacy, but
want stronger American presence in foreign affairs
ELECTION OF 2012 & 2014
2012: Obama vs Romney
- Obama wins with 5M+ votes, 332 to 206 electoral college
- strong surge in Hispanic support for Democrats
- GOP maintain majority in House, Dems maintain control of Senate
2014: Republicans take control of both houses of Congress
Partisan gridlock - compromise in Congress is difficult & rare
"sequestrations" - automatic budget cuts across domestic & defense spending
GOP votes 50+ times to overturn ACA
16 day govt shutdown over debt ceiling
Sandyhook & Charleston massacres
Debate over gun laws - background checks & gun show loopholes
Police shootings - public awareness & protest fueled by social media
home-grown terrorism - i.e. Boston Marathon Bombing
conflict of intelligence gathering and personal liberties & rights
radical islamic terrorism
- divide of Sunni & Shiite govts in "failed states" of Middle East
- ISIS: violent extremists that is well funded and uses social media
effectively to recruit & share propaganda globally
IRAN - 2015 Nuclear agreement w/ U.S. and allies
EUROPE - focus on Russia vs NATO
- Ukraine & the Russian annexation of Crimea
- Russia reprimanded with economic sanctions
CHINA - conflicts over South China Seas & cyberwarfare
CUBA - 2015. embassies open for first time since 1950s

Citizens united v. FEC -
corporations are "legal persons" & have same rights for political spending
development of renewable energy industry
Congress divided on issue of Climate Change, oppose regulations
2015 - S.C. rules EPA has right to impose regulations under Clean Air Act
2010 - repeal "Don't Ask Don't Tell"
2013 - Defense of Marriage Act ruled unconstitutional
2015 -
Obergefell v. Hodges
- Same Sex Marriage
2008 - S.C. rules individuals have right to firearm unconnected to militia
2012 - Arizona v. U.S. - fed immigration law preempts state law
2012 - Roberts upholds ACA's personal mandate as Congress' right to levy taxes
2015 - Roberts upholds ACA's subsidies & health exchanges
"With Congress too divided to address complex issues of the times, more decisions were falling to the courts to settle... If it continues, the Roberts Court may become one of the most influential courts in American history."

What other courts would be in contention for this title and why?
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