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Constitution

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by

Brad Smallwood

on 13 September 2016

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Transcript of Constitution

Anti-Federalist
believe that the President and Congress would have too much power.
The Anti-Feds. want a Bill of Rights included into the Constitution.
Amendments allow change to the Constitution
Is it for you?
“I am exceedingly distressed at the proceedings of the Convention—being ... almost sure, they will ... lay the foundation of a Civil War.”
— Elbridge Gerry (Massachusetts Delegate), 1787
Anti-Federalist want less control!
What is the Constitution?
Amendments make the Difference!
The Constitution is a fairly brief document which outlines the basic principles upon which our government was built.

The Constitution is split into three parts; Preamble, Articles, and Amendments.

Preamble
:
the introduction of the Constitution, basically the Preamble states the purpose of the Constitution.

Articles:

7 articles that outline the characteristics of our government
Legislative
Executive
Judicial
State Relations
Amendments
Supremacy Clause
Ratification
September 17, 1787
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Federalist
Federalists and Anti-Federalist react!
How Many Times has the Constitution been amended?
Research Question?
Federalist Speak
Federalist

state that the Articles are too weak.
A strong government would solve problems
Power must be separated, to prevent abuse.
Alexander Hamilton and James Madison create
"The Federalist"

the Federalists' arguments for ratification were summarized in "The Federalist"
Which Amendment/s has had the biggest impact on you? Explain your answer.
Constitution


Famous Amendments:
1st - 10th
-
Bill of Rights
13th, 14th, & 15th
-
Civil War Amendments
18th & 21st
-
Prohibition Amendments

19th & 26th
-
Suffrage Amendments
22nd -

Presidential Amendment
A Framework for Limited Government
The New Constitution was based on the idea of
popular sovereignty
,
or rule by the people rather than a direct democracy, a system of representation.

Separation of powers
was a major addition to the Constitution. The Separation included; t
he Legislative branch, with two houses of Congress; the Senate and the House of Representatives,

Executive Branch which is headed by the President
, and t
he Judicial Branch, which is a system of federal courts.

Legislative Branch
-
makes the laws. Has the power to impeach any federal official.
Executive Branch

-
implement and enforce the laws passed by Congress.
Judicial Branch
-
interprets federal laws and render judgment in cases involving those laws



Checks and balances
-
a system to prevent any one of the three branches from becoming too powerful. Each branch has the ability to limit the power of another system.
Articles of Confederation
Adopted by the Continental Congress November 1777
Once a year, delegates from each state would meet in the capital city.
There was only the Congress, no executive or judicial branches.
Congress had the right to declare war, raise armies, and sign treaties.
Congress could not regulate trade or raise taxes, these powers were held by the states. This lack of power weakened the Congress
Problems with the Articles
Since Congress lacked the power to tax, the federal government relied on states for funding.
Congress also decided to sell land to raise money
Land Ordinance of 1785

arranged land into townships.
Northwest Territory
Congress passed the
Northwest Ordinance
which created the territory.
Area north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River. 60,000 people needed for state hood.
Protected civil liberties and banned slavery in the new territory.
Essential question
What gives a government authority?
Key terms (use your book to define these)
duty
recession
popular sovereignty
federalism
separation of powers
checks and balances
veto
amendment
Bill of Rights
Shay's Rebellion

In January 1787,
Daniel Shay leads 1,200 farmers to seize weapons in Massachusetts.

The conflict was
triggered when the state government of Massachusetts decided to issue more taxes instead of issuing paper money.

The rebellion was resolved by local militia, but
the rebellion alarmed people with greater income and they saw this as a sign that the republic was at risk.
The Constitutional Convention
In February 1787, Congress called for a convention of the states "for the sole purpose of revision the Articles of Confederation."
55 delegates attended the convention and were mostly attorneys, planters, or merchants.
The delegates chose George Washington as the presiding officer.
The Virginia and New Jersey Plans
The Great Compromise
Compromise Over Slavery
South
Wanted to count enslaved people for purposes of population. (every 40,000 people counted as a vote in the House of Representatives)

North

Said that slaves should count for tax purposes.
Three-Fifths Compromise
Every five enslaved persons would count as three free persons to determine both representation and taxes.
Amendments
;
changes to the Constitution.
Full transcript