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Genetically Modified Organisms

Defining GMO's

Andrea Palmatier

on 12 April 2017

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Transcript of Genetically Modified Organisms

Genetically Modified Organisms
The goal of such genetic engineering is to give the original organism new characteristics, such as disease resistance.
Pro's of GMO's:
More insect resistant crops
Environmental Protection
More nutritious food
GMO's can stop world hunger
Are GMOs Good?
Genetically modified cotton (to be insect resistant) on left; non-GM cotton on right.
Decreased Antibiotic Efficacy
Gene Transfer
Allegric Reactions
Increased use of pesticides and herbicides
Cross pollination
Expensive cost for government and consumers
Consumers want to know what is in their food!
The GMO Cons:
Currently, the United States has no law protecting consumers from GMOs. Companies are NOT required to label their packaging.
Labeling Controversy
Advice on avoiding GMOs by Wiki-how:
I don't want to eat GMOs! How can I avoid them?
Become familiar with the most common applications of genetic modification.
Corn, soybeans, rapeseed/canola, sugarbeets, rice, cotton, dairy, aspartame, farm-raised salmon
Buy 100% organic (labeled).
Purchase beef that is 100% grass-fed.
Seek products that are specifically labeled as non-GM or GMO-free.
Shop locally.
Buy whole foods.
Grow your own food.
Genetic engineering: The world's greatest scam?
Bill Gates Backs Genetically Modified Food Research
How to Avoid Genetically Modified Foods
So, how do the engineers and scientists do this?
1. DNA extraction
selected gene is extracted from organism.
2. Gene cloning
the gene is cloned thousands of times so that it can be successfully inserted into cells.
3. Gene design
this is done by placing genes inside a different organism.
4. Transformation
this is where a new gene is delivered into the nucleus of a plant cell and inserts into a chromosome.
also means to genetically change a living organism by delivering the desired DNA into the nucleus of plant cells.
3 methods of delivering DNA into the nucleus of plant cells: injection, gene guns, and agrobacterium
A - Desired gene isolated and placed into DNA section called a plasmid

B - Plasmid transferred into bacterium

C - Bacterium infects plant cells, transferring desired gene into chromosome
Backcross breeding
the gene is crossbred with non-modified plants, making a new line of plants
Lastly, scientists check to see if the inserted genes work, and monitor the future offspring of the plants.
A - Particles coated in DNA

B - Particles fired at plant by "biolistic" gun

C - New DNA enters cell, new gene is built into chromosome
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be defined as organisms in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally.
Some examples of Genetically Modified Organisms are:
modified to stay fresher, longer. Also
have been crossed with DNA from an arctic fish to become more cold tolerant.
Sweet Corn:
modified with bacteria to produce a poison so it kills harmful insects.
Golden Rice:
modified with genes from daffodils and
bacteria so it can have vitamin A and beta-carotene.
modified with genes from a jellyfish to become fluorescent. Originally created to detect certain biotoxins in pollution; now they are household pets.
Glow in the dark cats
Bizarre Genetically Modified Animals:
Less flatulent cows
source: http://listverse.com/2008/04/01/top-10-bizarre-genetically-modified-organisms/
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