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Patricia Whalon

on 20 May 2014

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Transcript of Cancer

Understanding Cancer
What is cancer?
Cancer is defined as "the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body."
Cancer develops when the cell cycle and cell division malfunction.
Benign v. Malignant tumors
Also called neoplasms, which means "new growth."

Tumors are masses of abnormal cells.

Not all tumors are bad.
Normal Cells to Cancerous Cells
Cause mutations in the DNA that alter the expression of genes
Most can be eliminated by enzymes or the immune system

Proto-oncogenes & Oncogenes
Proto-oncogenes are codes for proteins needed for cell growth and division
Carcinogens can cause sites to break, changing the proto-oncogene into an oncogene
Oncogenes cause cancer
Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation and surgery.
Normal Cells to Cancerous Cells
Tumor Suppressor Genes
Suppress or prevent cancer
Repair DNA
Put "brakes" on cell division
Inactivate carcinogens
Enhance ability of immune system to destroy cancer cells
When damaged, oncogenes are free to spread and multiply
Symptoms & Diagnosis
There are over 200 known types of cancer. There are over 60 organs in the body where cancer can develop.
Types of Cancer
Common Symptoms:
Unexplained weight loss
Skin changes
Symptoms vary on the type and intensity of the cancer.
Diagnosis begins with a thorough Physical Examination and Medical History.
Vital Signs are checked
Blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate, temperature
General Appearance is checked
Heart exam
Lung exam
Head and neck exam
Abdominal examination
Neurological examination
Dermatological exam
Extremities exam
The ten most common cancers in the U.S. are
Skin cancer
Lung cancer
Prostate cancer
Breast cancer
Colorectal cancer
Kidney (renal) cancer
Bladder cancer
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Thyroid cancer
Endometrial cancer
Cancer Symptoms:
Depend on Size, Location and Intensity
Non-cancerous tumors are made of benign cells.
Cancerous tumors are made of malignant cells.

Benign tumors do not spread, grow slowly, and are surrounded by a capsule.

Malignant tumors invade their surroundings rather than push them aside. They spread via the blood, grow quickly, and can kill.
Size- As cancer grows, it becomes stronger. If caught early, it will be small and have a significantly greater chance of removal.

Location- if it is near organs it will have greater side effects

Intensity- can be strong or weak; this can be in response to how healthy and immune your body is when it encounters cancer

By Lauren Mazzio, Marykate McGuigan, and Tricia Whalon
Given in a variety of ways:
Injection- shot to a muscle area, Intravenous- given through an IV directly into a vein.
Intra-arterial- given directly into an artery that is feeding the cancer.
Intraperitoneal, or Orally
Chemotherapy is a medicine that focuses on killing bad cells; can kill good cells as well.
Radiation therapy is high level radiation used to kill cancer cells. It attacks the DNA
of the malignant cells.
If successful, the DNA of the cell is killed as well as the cell itself. This gets rid of the cancer.
Comes with serious risks because in killing the bad cells, it can also kill the good cells, taking away important functions of the body
moving in general
Types of Radiation:
Gamma Rays
Charged particles
About half of all cancer patients receive radiation as part of their treatment.
Surgery may free the person from all cancer and leave little to no side effects, but leaves a chance for malignant cells to metastasize (move to somewhere else in the body.
Its likely that the next cancer will be more fatal:
stronger while the body is more weak
-Moves to the place of a more important organ
Prayer for Cancer Patients
Bless, O God,
all who struggle with cancer.
Empower them with hope
for each and every day.
Provide them with loving
and tender care, laughter,
and the support of love.
Grant them
courage when they afraid,
comfort when they are in pain,
and your blessing
when all else seems hopeless,
that in their fight with illness
they may continue to praise you
and glorify your name.
Tips for cancer prevention include:

Avoid smoking. If you do smoke, quit.
Avoid too much sun exposure and wear sunscreen outdoors.
Eat a nutritious diet and exercise regularly.
Get proper cancer screening for your age, gender, and risk factors.
Take proper precautions around carcinogens and industrial chemicals, such as wearing gloves and making sure there is enough ventilation.
Watch your alcohol intake.

Cancer Prevention
Cancer is felt through major changes in which your body feels or functions
Surgery is often the best option but can be dangerous.
Normal Vs. Cancerous Visual
Full transcript