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Classification of Living Things

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7th Grade Science ALR

on 27 October 2014

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Transcript of Classification of Living Things

Types of Heterotrophs
Decomposers: include heterotrophic plants, fungi, and bacteria which live/eat on dead matter
Herbivores: Plant - eating animals
Carnivores: Meat-eating animals
Omnivores: Consume both plants and meat
Classification Groups
Taxon (taxa - plural) - a category for related organisms to be placed
There is a
hierarchy
of groups (taxa) -
from broadest to most specific
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family,
Genus, specie
s
Kingdom Plantae
Leiolepis ngovantrii
Lady Butterfly Lizard
Benefits of Classifying
Accurately names organisms
Prevents misnomers such as starfish & jellyfish that aren't really fish
Uses same language (either Latin or Greek) for ALL names
Species of Organisms
There 13 billion known species of Organisms
This is only 5% of all organisms that ever lived!!!
New organisms are still being found and identified.
Classification of Living Things
May have come from these two...
Why Classify?
Multicellular
Eukaryotic
Has a Cell Wall (mae of cellulose)
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
Autotrophs and some Heterotroph
No Nervous system
No movement ability
Has chloroplast
Write the words in Black
All born as females
Reproduces by cloning
Much is still unknown about its origin
What is Classification?
Classification - arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities
Classification is also known as taxonomy
Taxonomists are scientists that identify & name organisms
Sea"horse"?
Using different Languages for Names Confuses Scientists
Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists
Dichotomous Keying
Used to identify Organisms
Characteristics given in pairs
Read both characteristics and either go to another set of characteristics OR identify the organism.
Example of a
Dichotomous Key
Early Taxonomists
Aristotle was the first taxonomist
2000 years ago
Divided organisms into plants and animals
Then subdivided by habitat - land, sea, or air dwellers
Early Taxonomists
John Ray, first to use Latin for naming
His names were very long descriptions telling everything about the plant
Carolus Linnaeus
1707-1778
Father of Taxonomy
Classified organisms by structure
Developed the naming system binomial nomenclature
Two-word name
Genus species
Italicized
in print
Capitalize Genus, but NOT species
Underlined when writing
Latin or Greek
Binomial Nomenclature
Turdus migratorius
American Robin
Polar bear
Ursus maritimus
Giant Panda
Ailuropoda melanoleuca
Grizzly Bear
Ursus arctos
Which 2 are more closely related?
Rules for Naming Organisms
The International Code for Binomial Nomenclature
contains the rules for naming organisms
All names must be approved by International Naming Congresses (International Zoological Congress)
This prevents duplicated names.
Nutritional Relationships
Autotrophs:
can
make their own food
from inorganic compounds and a usable energy source

Heterotrophs: can NOT make their own food
and are dependent on other organisms for their food.
Types of Carnivores:
Predators: animals which kill and consume their prey
Prey - organism killed in the predation interaction
Predation - the act of one organism killing another for food.
Scavengers: Those animals that feed on other animals that they have not killed
(already dead animals, i.e. road kill, leftovers from other animals, natural death)
Predators and Scavengers
Adaptation
A behavior or physical characteristic that allows and organism to survive or reproduce in its environment.
Has evolved over a period of time by the process of natural selection
Organisms adapted to their enironment are able to:
obtain air, water, food and nutrients
Cope with physical conditions such as temperature,
light, and heat
Defend themselves from natural enemies
Reproduce
Respond to changes around them
Here's a little more
Natural selection does not grant organisms what they "need"
Heirarchy - Taxonomic Groups
D
omain (broadest taxon)
K
ingdom
P
hylum (or Division - used for plants)
C
lass
O
rder
F
amily
G
enus
S
pecies (most
specific)
Taxonomy for the American Black Bear

D
o
K
ings
P
lay
C
hess
O
n
F
unny
G
reen
S
quares
Chimpanzees vs Humans
Australopithecus afarensis
Homo habilis
= handy human 1.5-2 mya
Homo erectus
Neanderthals
35,000 - 100,000 ya
Cro-Magnon
35.000 - 40,000 ya
Domains
Broadest, most inclusive taxon
Three domains
1. Archaea (archaebacteria)
2. Bacteria (Eubacteria)
3. Eukarya (The Kingdoms)
Probably the 1st cells to evolve
Unicellular Prokaryotes (have no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles)
Have a Cell Wall - no Chloroplasts
Asexual Reproduction
Heterotrophic
No Nervous System
Can Move
Live in HARSH environments
Found in:
Thermal or Vaolcanic Vents
Hot Springs or Geysers that are acidic
Sewage Treatement Plants
Very Salty water (Dead Sea; Great Salt Lake)
Archaebacteria
Eubacteria
Unicellular Prokaryotes (no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles)
Have a cell wall - No chloroplasts
Asexual Reproduction
Heterotrophic
No Nervous System
Can Move
Some may cause DISEASE
In ALL HABITATS except harshones
Important environmental decomposers - breaks down dead stuff
Commercially important in making cottage cheese, yogurt, buttermilk
Eukarya
Multicellular Eukaryotes (have nucleus and membrane-bound organelles)
This domain is broken into Kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Kingdom Protista
Both Unicellular and Multicellular
Eukaryotic
Has a Cell Wall
Aual and Sexual Reproduction
Autotrophic and some heterotrophic
Aquatic
No Nervous System
Some movement ability
Has chloroplast in most cases
Includes All:
Protozoa: No Cell Walls
Amoaba
Paramecium
Euglena
Algae: Have cell wall chloroplasts - Autotrophic
Some multi-cellular - (Blue-Green Algae is not protista
Kingdom Fungi
Multicellular (except yeast & bread mold)
Eukaryotic
Has a Cell Wall (Made of Chitin)
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
Absorptive Heterotroph (digest food outside their body and then absorb it)
Lives on its food source
Absorb the nutrients they need from the environment
Digestive enzymes are secrete into their food source for EXTRACELLULAR digestion
No nervous system
No movement ability
No chloroplast
Examples:
Bryophytes: No true roots or leaves, small, Live, in moist areas - Mosses
Tracheophytes: True roots, stems, and leaves, grow different heights, and live all over - Trees
Kingdom Animalia
Multicellular
Eukaryotic
No Cell Wall
Sexual Reproduction
Ingestive Heterotrophs (consume food and digest i inside their bodies)
Has a Nervous System
Has movement ability
No Chloroplast
Taxons
Most genera contain a number of similar species
The genus
Homo
is an exception (only contains modern humans)
Classification is based on evolutionary relationships.
Basis for Modern Taxonomy
Homologous structures (same structure, different function)
Similar embryo development
Molecular Similarity in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequence of Proteins
Homologous structures (BONES in the FORELIMBS) shows Similarities in mammals
Similarities in Vertebrate Embryos
Cladogram
Diagram showing how organisms are related based on shared, derived characteristics such feathers, hair, or scales
Primate Cladogram
Viruses
Not classified in a Kingdom
Contain DNA but not shaped like a cell
Purpose of life is reproduction
Must have a host (another living organism) to be able to reproduce
This causes Disease in the host
(ex: colds, rabies, AIDS, flu, etc.)
Bacteriophages invade host cell, take over the cell, and begin relicating viruses, eventually lysing or bursting the host cell, releasing the new virus to infect addtional cells
Papillomirus is a DNA virus that causes warts
poliovirus
The End
...for now...
Discovery Education:
Classification of Living Things video.
Full transcript