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Adolescence - Biological, Psychological, & Sociological Deve
Transcript of Adolescence - Biological, Psychological, & Sociological Deve
By: Taylor Braxton, Quasia Peterson, Zakiya Williams, Amber Adams, Christine Atakora, and Shonn Dunton
Erik Erikson's Theory of Physiological Development
The Exposure to Violence
A Multicultural Perspective
Risk-Taking Behavior in Australia
Brown and Gourdine (2007) Report
Exposure to violence leads to risky behavior
The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence
Cruelty through exclusion
"Falling in Love"
Uncertainty of one's life course
Over identification with Hero Cliques
Any illicit Drug: 36.6%
Marijuana: 32.4% (5.4% use daily)
Crack Cocaine: 1.6%
Other Narcotics (Oxycontin): 4.7%
Alcohol: 65.5% (2.8% drink daily)
Smokeless tobacco: 6.5%
Tranquilizers: 6.2 %
Rose (1998) presents an overview of studies in several countries to predict whether behavior assessments could predict which children were likely to abuse alcohol by middle to late adolescence.
Evaluations at age 10 and 27 showed that high novelty seeking and low harm avoidance-daredevil behavior- predicted early-onset alcoholism
Differentiated the pathway to alcoholism in males and females
cried easily when teased
Aggression at age 8 predicted alcoholism 18-20 years later
Adolescent: is a transitional stage of physical and psychological human development (ages 13-19)
Biological development- The progressive changes in size, shape, and function during the life of an organism
Psychological development- examines change across a broad range of topics including motor skills and cognitive development such as problem solving, moral understanding, and conceptual understanding.
Sociological development- explain qualitative changes in the structure and framework of society which helps society to better realize its aims and objectives.
an ability to recover from or adjust easily to misfortune or change.
Teaching Children Resilience
Racial and Ethnic Identity
Race- a category of humankind that shares certain distinctive physical traits
Ethnicity- the fact of state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition.
Social and economic advantages and disadvantages when dealing with racial and ethnic identity
Theories associated with Racial/ethnic identity
The Doll Test
Male Gender Identity
Boys are more likely to learn about the changes in their body from their friends and in school than their parents.
Facial and body hair has strong psychological meaning
Boys use violence towards women to discount all aspects of the femininity
It is difficult to form a firm male identity without a masculine role model
“Within black life as well as in mainstream society males prove they are men by the exhibition of antisocial behavior, lack of consideration for the needs of others, refusal to communicate, unwillingness to show nurturance and care. Here I am not talking about traits adult males cultivate, I am talking about the traits boys learn early in life to associate with manhood”
Male Gender Identity in the Media
anxious and shy were most apt to develop problems with alcohol abuse later
The mass media promotes this macho image which often results in exaggeration of the male identity and makes it hard for men to have future intimate relationships.
“There is a time in a young boy's life when the sweetness is pounded out of him; and tenderness, and the ability to show what he feels, is gone.”
Female Gender Identity
Girls also have to learn that articulating feelings and being honest is sometimes socially unacceptable. When they express themselves spontaneously their remarks are seen a rudeness or insensitivity to peoples' feelings.
Teenage girls are pressured to conform to gender roles.
Unrealistic media-generated body images plague the life of the maturing female
Sense of self is invested in maintaining relationships
Female Gender Identity
“In early adolescence she becomes acutely aware of herself as being perceived by others, judged by others, though she herself is the harshest judge, quick to list her physical flaws, quick to under value and under rate herself not only in terms of physical appearance but across a wide range of talents, capacities and even social status, whereas boys of the same age will cite their abilities, their talents and their social status pretty accurately”
Gay and lesbian adolescence are more likely to abuse drugs, have unsafe sex, become homeless or attempt suicide than heterosexual adolescence.
Gay and Lesbian Identity
Gender identity is a person's inner sense of being male or female
The message is sent by society that gay or lesbian sexual orientation is something that can and should be concealed.
Children often cover up or deny who they are to avoid being ridiculed.
Many theorists such as Erikson believes that children cannot develop correctly if they do not at a certain age develop an attraction for the opposite sex.
Society shows much hostility towards effeminate heterosexual males, gay or lesbian youth and even youth who are not quite sure what they like.
Studies at schools show children being harassed by students while teachers and administrators looked the other way
Unaccepted Gay and Lesbian Identity
In the Middle East all forms of out of wedlock sexuality is punished with a vengeance
In the United Kingdom gay and lesbian adolescence are harassed as early as ten years old causing them to suffer from depression, PTSD and to attempt suicide.
Who is Multicultural?
mixed race and mixed ethnicity
those who have lived in more than one country
those reared with at least one culture in addition to the dominant mainstream culture
those in intercultural relationships
Multiculturalism in Adolescence
Society is organized around a tendency to categorize people in either/or categories
• In addition, there may be rejection from one community or family or the other
• pressure on children from mixed backgrounds to identify with just one racial-ethnic group
mixed marriages are now at 8%
Hawaii at the west had the highest percentages of mixed racial groups
High numbers of multicultural adolescents can be found in other nations where migration is strong
Multiculturalism has been formally adopted as an official policy in nations
In 2000 U.S. Census Bureau reported 7 million people, or 2.4 percent of the population reported they and/or their children were of two or more races.
Spiritual Development in Adolescence
Fowler identified the Seven Stages of Faith Development (1981)
"Synthetic" - beliefs are not the result of any type of analytical thought. Any attempts to reason with a person in this stage about his beliefs, any suggestion of his beliefs is seen as a threat
"Conventional" means that most people in this stage see themselves as believing what "everybody else" believes and would be reluctant to stop believing it because of the need they feel to stay connected with their group.
Adolescents fall in the Synthetic-conventional stage (12 to older):
Six Reasons Adolescence Stray Away From From Their Spiritual Development
Practice Implications with Adolescents
Importance of the role of religious faith in resilience
Social Work is consistent with the acceptance of the strengths and empowerment perspectives
Social workers try to minimize all risk factors for adolescents and maximize their natural resilience with Harm Reduction Programs such as:
zero tolerance and "one size fits all" programs
gay and lesbian sex education and alcohol prevention
bullying and verbal abuse
drug abuse, homeless youth, and prostitution
relationships abuses/domestic abuse
What is Multiculturalism and Multicultural Identity
Multiculturalism: the experience of having been exposed to and having internalized two or more cultures
Multicultural Identity: is the condition of having strong attachments with and loyalty towards these different cultures.
Coming of Age Cross-Culturally
Adolescents are expected to assume adult responsibilities early
Adolescence in the Jewish Community
Most cultures have coming of age ceremonies and rituals for there young people.
Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Identity
Jewish 12 year old girls and 13 year old Jewish boys have bar or bat mitzvah that marks the day the start to observe religious commandments.
Latin America the most important day for a girl is her quinceanera the ceremony that takes when she reaches the age of 15.
Coming of Age Cross-Culturally
Most western societies have social markers such as earning privileges to drive,drink, or vote.
Due to the growth in population of the Latinos in the United States such celebrations have become more mainstream and popular.
Arrange Marriages vs. At Will Marriages
Piaget theory of cognitive Development
Kohl berg's theory of moral reasoning is also a stage theory
The Inuit of the Canadian arctic cross-Cultural
Coming of Age Cross Culturally
Identity Diffusion: suffers from serious lack of decision and direction, never resolves identity crisis
Identity Confusion: leads to negative psychological outcomes i.e. lower self-esteem, academic performance, and poor peer relations
Pros and Cons
minority adolescence begin to explore their heritage
adolescence grow a sense of pride in their ethnic background
Risk- Taking Behavior in Australia
- See more at: http://www.kidshelp.com.au/grownups/news-research/hot-topics/risk-taking.php#sthash.TiYx0wC9.dpuf
Body Image in Adolescence
body image issues are now recognized as affecting all racial and ethnic groups.
eating disturbances and body dissatisfaction occur to some degree in children and adolescents from all ethnic groups.
Influences such as:
fat is bad and thin is good”
"kid-friendly" fast food restaurants
the media and popular culture, as well as the more proximal familial context, also play important roles.
Social networking safety
Related Kids Helpline hot topics for parents/carers:
1 in 4 were victims of robbery, vandalism, or theft
1 in 10 suffered from both physical and emotional child maltreatment
1 in 16 were victimized sexually
around 6% of children have witnessed one parent assaulting another.
Alcohol and other drugs
Body Image in Adolescents
Dove Self- Esteem Movement
Importance of Spiritual Development in Adolescence
Religious faith provides structure for children and closeness to relatives and people of all ages through participation in rituals.
Provides stress reduction and acts as a support in times of trouble (as through prayer)
Religious faith helps to provide a purpose in life
Adolescents gain confidence by participating actively in church programs
Learn moral values and altruism through teachings in the church
2. Shallowness. Believe church is boring, faith is irrelevant and Bible teaching is unclear. God is absent from their church experience.
1. Isolationism. Feels the church demonizes everything outside church, including the music, movies, culture, and technology that define their generation.
3. Anti-science. Believe the church is out of step on scientific developments and debate.
4. Sex. "just say no" is insufficient
5. Exclusivity. Feel the church is too exclusive
6. Doubters. The church is not a safe place to express doubts (Reed, 2012)
Bagley, C., & Bolitho, F. (2001, January 1). Ethnicities and social adjustment in Canadian adolescents - Springer. Retrieved October 9, 2014, from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12134-001-1021-0
Building Resilience in Children. (2014, October 9). Retrieved November 5, 2014, from Healthy
Children website: http://www.healthychildren.org/English/healthy-living/emotional-wellness/
Grotberg, E. H. (1997, July). The international resilience research project. Retrieved November 4,
2014, from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED417861.pdf
2010 Human Rights Report: Israel and the occupied territories. (2011, April 8). Retrieved November
2, 2014, from US Department of State website: http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/nea/
Inc, G. R. (2014). Norah Vincent Quotes. Retrieved from www.goodreads.com: http://www.goodreads.com/author/show/16532.Norah_Vincent
LLC, D. (2014). Quotation by Terri Apter. Retrieved from www.dictionary.com: http://quotes.dictionary.com/In_early_adolescence_she_becomes_acutely_aware_of
Multicultural teenagers' self-esteem high: Study. (2004, October 19). Retrieved October 25, 2014, from http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2004-10/uot-mts101904.php
Multiculturalism. (n.d.). Retrieved October 10, 2014, from http://www.cic.gc.ca/ENGLISH/multiculturalism/index.asp
Racial and ethnic identity and development. (n.d.). Retrieved November 5, 2014, from
Reed, E. (2012, January 1). Six Reasons Young People Leave the Church. Retrieved November 1, 2014, from http://www.christianitytoday.com/le/2012/winter/youngleavechurch.html
Wormer, K., & Wormer, K. (2007). Adolescences. In Human behavior and the social environment, micro level individuals and families (2nd ed., pp. 176-201). Oxford: OXford University Press.
The seven Cs as it pertains to resilience:
Competence- the feeling of knowing you can handle a situation effectively.
Confidence- a child's belief in his own abilities.
Connection- developing close ties to family and community
Character- children need to develop a solid set of morals and values to determine right from wrong
Coping- learning to cope effectively with stress
Control- children who realize that they can control the outcomes of their decisions are more likely to realize that they have the ability to bounce back.
Resilience Cross Culturally
In Armenia there is a great deal of support systems for an individual as the resolution of the adverse situation.
Erikson's Developmental Model
Industry vs Inferiority
In Israel racial and identity crisis have been occurring pertaining to Israeli Arabs,Ethiopian Jews,Israeli Jews.