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PHED 1 Trial Exam February 2014

Skill Acquisition Mark Scheme

James Pillinger

on 26 February 2014

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Transcript of PHED 1 Trial Exam February 2014

PHED 1 Trial Exam February 2014
A. Distributed sessions/rest/recovery periods;
B. Resetting of goals/tasks more challenging/
competition against opposition;
C. Offering extrinsic rewards/encouragement/praise/
positive reinforcement;
D. Using mental rehearsal/imagery/visualisation;
E. Provide feedback/visual guidance;
F. Use of whole-part-whole/part method/breaking
the skill down;
G. Ensure performer focuses on appropriate cues;
H. Make practices more varied/more interesting/fun/
I. Make performer fitter;
J. Better quality coaching/new coach/change
coaching method;
K. Concept of plateau

4A Games players may find that their skill performance reaches a plateau. Suggest possible solutions that a coach could use to minimise a learning plateau. (2 Marks)
A. Memory trace (MT) = plan of action/motor programme/ acts as reference standard/ initiates movement;
B. MT - based on experience/practice/previous performance;
C. Perceptual Trace - directs/controls current movement;
D. Learning involves development of PT through feedback;
E. Two (memory and perceptual) are compared;
F. If they match/correspond - movement continues;
G. Mismatch produces error corrections (during performance);
H. Adjusted memory trace = new motor programme

4C Describe how these two traces are used to produce skilled movement. (2 marks)
4B Skilful play within a game relies on effective information processing. According to Adam’s closed loop theory, two pieces of information called traces are used to control movement. 3 Name these two traces. (1 Mark)
Memory and Perceptual Trace
Short-term sensory store
A. Receives information from display/surroundings/ environment/equiv;
B. From sensors/sense organs/egs/equiv.
C. Too much/lots of information;
D. Information is filtered/selective attention;
E. Attended information enters short-term memory
Long-term memory
F. Store of past experiences;
G. As Motor programme/schema/plan of action/skills/ passes;
H. Mental image of movement to be performed;
I. Correct information/meaningful/important/rehearsed/relevant information stored;
J. Information in to/from Short Term Memory;
4D Explain the functions of the short-term sensory store and the long-term memory when performing the skill of passing. (2 marks)
One way of learning a new skill is through operant conditioning which involves reinforcement to strengthen the stimulus-response bond. Use examples to distinguish between the different types of reinforcement. (2 Marks)
A. Positive and negative reinforcement
B. Positive - Use of praise/rewards/self-satisfaction to encourage correct behaviour
C. Negative - Removal of criticism/unpleasant stimulus to encourage desired response/e.g. coach stops shouting


A. Schema – set of ‘rules’/relationships to help us make decisions about movement patterns
B. Following/during movement/action
C. Sensory consequences
D. e.g. feedback information concerning performance/Knowledge of performance/kinesthesis/intrinsic feedback/how it felt
E. Response/movement outcome
F. Comparison of actual and intended outcome/feedback/knowledge of results/what happened

When teaching new skills, coaches often implement the principles of Schmidt’s Schema Theory. Explain the functions of recognition schema. (2 Marks)
A. Vary practised conditions by changing initial conditions/ appropriate example
B. Realistic/specific practice to activity
C. Build up set of response specifications/movement requirements/outcomes practised
D. eg weight of implement/flight of ball
E. Frequent/lots feedback
F. Teach fundamental/simple skills before sport specific skills

What implications does Schmidt’s Schema Theory have for the way in which sports skills should be taught? (2 Marks)

A. Motor ability – concerned with movements/actions/performing task;
B. Eg Leg/arm/body muscle contractions/ pushing off the blocks;

C. Perceptual ability – receiving/ recognising/selecting information from senses;
D. Eg reacting to the gun;

The swimming start is a skill that requires certain abilities to be performed well.
Using examples from a swimming start, explain the differences between ‘motor
ability’ and ‘perceptual ability’ (2 marks)

A. Cognitive and autonomous stages;

B. Cognitive – needs instruction/ demonstration/forms mental/image/ trying to understand/many errors;

C. Autonomous – without conscious thought/able to focus on other factors – tactics/stress management;

Name the early and the final stages of learning, and describe the characteristics of each. (3 Marks)

Feedback used in AUTONOMOUS Stage is more:
A. (mainly) intrinsic/kinaesthetic/correct own mistakes/proprioceptors;
B. Knowledge of performance (KP);
C. Can be delayed;
D. Concurrent/continuous;
E. Negative/critical
F. Specific/detailed;

Describe how the ‘feedback’ that a tennis player uses will change between these two stages of learning. (2 Marks)
A. Eg Ignore crowd/environment and concentrate on player position, ball
B. Filtering/ignoring/blocking out of unnecessary information;
C. Focussing/concentrate/picking out on relevant information/stimulus;
D. Too much information/stimuli from environment;
E. Located between STSS and STM;
F. Limited processing capacity;
G. Single channel hypothesis/bottleneck theory;
H. Attentional narrowing;

To be effective, games players will need to use 'selective attention'.
Using an example from a game, explain the term selective attention. (2 Marks)
Insight learning -
A. Involves cognitive processes/development
B. Understanding the process to achieve the result/why/reasons you do things;
C. Coach questions performer about why they’re performing in a particular way
D. Experiences the ‘whole’ activity rather than skills in isolation;
E. Allows learners to develop their own strategies and/or routes of understanding;
F. Better for the performer rather than being told what to do all the time;
G. Performer able to adjust movements as required;
H. Improves motivation.

Explain the term insight learning. and suggest how this approach could have a positive effect on learning to long jump. (2 Marks)
A. Attention, retention, motor production, motivation;
B. Attention - highlight the key areas of the skill/focus/concentrate;
C. Retention - performer able to remember information/keep mental image;
D. Motor (re)production - physically capable of performing skill;
E. Motivation - drive/desire/use of rewards/praise by coach;

Name the four stages of Bandura’s observational model of learning. Using examples, explain how a coach may use this model to teach the correct technique for skills such as triple jumping. (4 Marks)
1. Detection of stimuli
2. Comparison to memory stores
3. Recognition of stimuli
4. DCR as abbreviations
5. Selective attention/discrimination/interpretation/filtering

Perception is part of an information processing system. Briefly explain each of the three processes that occur as part of perception. (3 marks)
1. Due to the single channel/bottle neck/limited processing capacity
2. One signal must be cleared before another can be responded to
3. Can only deal with one piece of information at one time/respond to one stimulus
at a time
4. So the response to the second response takes longer
5. Psychological refractory period

When playing badminton, the shuttlecock occasionally hits the top of the net during a rally and the receiver has to adjust their response. This causes a delay before the final response can be made. Explain why this occurs. (3 marks)
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