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Transcript of Transactional Analysis
Developed his own understanding of personality, relationships and therapy (TA)
Author of "Games People Play" (1964) Counselors may sometimes use re-parenting techniques and provide strokes Obtain a clearer picture.... Child Parent Parent Child Child Child Parent Adult Parent Adult Parent Child Adult Parent Adult Child Adult Complementary Parent (source ego) to Child (target ego) "Please go pick up the mess you made." Child (replying ego state) to Parent (target of reply) "Ok, I will pick up my mess" Adult Crossed Adult to Adult (target ego state) "It's raining outside. Do you want to put on your rain boots?" Child (replying ego state) to Parent "STOP TELLING ME WHAT TO DO!!" Ulterior Adult Child Adult Child Parent Parent Adult to Adult (overt message) "Yes, it is after 11pm. Sorry, I forgot to read my email." Child to Parent (covert message) "She's doing it again! Why is she giving me a hard time just for being a few minute late?! Adult to Adult (overt message) "Is it after 11pm? I don't know where the time went tonight." Parent to Child (covert message) "I want you to know I noticed you came after your curfew. Don't expect an extended curfew this weekend!" Person 1 to Person 2 Person 2 to Person 1 Strokes - positive messages; best when unconditional
Injunctions - negative strokes; disapproval, dislike, criticism, prohibitions
Games - stereotyped, repetitive, mutually manipulative interactions between two people; opposite of open, authentic, loving and growing relationships
Scripts - life position shaped by internalized strokes and injunctions I'm not OK You're OK I'm OK You're not OK I'm not OK You're not OK I'm OK You're OK Counselor and client must establish a trusting relationship Child Parent Adult Establishing Balance objective
logic > emotion
integrates messages from other ego states
integrate or minimize input from others Awareness Spontaneity Intimacy Balance Transactions with others Life position Life script Change behavior Resolve childhood conflict Relationships 0:32 - 3:34 covert - psychological level overt - social level Two levels of communication happen simultaneously *Idea that early childhood development and parental messages play major role in how people develop their "life scripts" *Growth is based on understanding of personality and the ego states Natural Adaptive early experiences
joy and shame spontaneous
spoiled Nurturing Critical supportive
reward *Adults have the power to change ; empower inner Adult to change from programed responses, to more spontaneous, appropriate and constructive responses in each situation Counselor's task is to make his or her nurturing Parent available to the student by showing genuine caring and warm empathy Goal-setting Role playing learn to control ego states
free the Adult to guide behavior and choose when to let the Parent and Child sides be activated identify and interrupt manipulative games used in transactions
understand the payoff of their games, and the rewards they must be willing ot give up in order to stop the games
"If it weren't for you... Why don't you...I'm only trying to help...Look how hard I've tried..." identify unconscious life plan
eliminate "tragic scripts" help people free themselves from becoming aware and then mobilizing their Adult to choose a more constructive life plan Serve as an enabler, teacher and coach whose task is helping people's Adults learn to interrupt their own growth-diminishing games and scripts Four Phases of TA Therapy helps client recognize when particular ego state is in the driver's seat of their inner lives Structural Analysis Transactional Analysis Game Analysis Script Analysis Have student practice self re-parenting Structural analysis and TA are useful tools in youth and teen growth groups Counselors can help adolescents with their struggles to keep their Adult in the driver's seat and avoid slipping back into unproductive behavior domination by their inner Child Still encourage student to allow their playful Child to enjoy life Collaboration between clients and counselors Enable client to paint a more positive picture of themselves Client should be open, take responsibility for themselves, and be willing to take risks to make changes Counselors must be conscious of the client's behaviors that reflect childhood experiences De-emphasize unconscious and focus on responsibility, emotional health and social relationships Help client move into an "I'm OK; you're OK position Help client gain awareness of their patterns and why they developed Develop contracts that clarify treatment process and affirm roles and responsibility of counselor and client References Clinebell, Howard J. Contemporary Growth Therapies. Chapter 6.
Solomon, C. (2003). Transactional analysis theory: the basics. Transactional Analysis Journal. Ridgway, I (2007) Theory & Practice 1: Lecture 10 Transactional Analysis Ego States and Basic Transitions: YouTube.com *TA is now integrated with Gestalt therapy; TA has the analytical/cognitive components, Gestalt has the affective, action-oriented approach