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Nuclear Medicine

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on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Nuclear Medicine

Position Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging in Nuclear Medicine Physicians use a lot of non-invasive techniques (x-rays, MRI scanners, CAT scans, ultrasound etc.)
Nuclear Medicine Imaging techniques combine the use of computers, detectors and radioactive substances Presents the New Nuclear Medicine Wing Our New State of the Art Technology What is Nuclear Medicine? uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and treat a wide variety of diseases. safe, painless, and cost effective nuclear medicine imaging procedures often identify abnormalities early on today nuclear medicine offers procedures essential in many medical specialties revolutionizes our understanding of and approach to a range of diseases Radio Pharmaceuticals The radio pharmaceutical is injected, swallowed or inhaled each radio tracer is attracted to specific organs, bones, or tissues, a special camera takes pictures of the distribution of the radio pharmaceuticals in the body Radioactivity was discovered in 1896 shortly after x-rays 1930s doctors found ways to use radioactivity to see inside the body Radioactive iodine has been used since the 1940s to observe the thyroid, which concentrates iodine Radioactive material, how safe is that? How much Radiation Exposure is Involved? very small amounts of radio tracer are used in tests resulting in low radiation exposure Factors determining Dosage Body Weight Reason for Study Body part being scanned Nuclear medicine imaging is useful for detecting... These techniques include.. The radioisotopes injected in the body decay quickly
Procedures use small doses of radioisotopes
Have lower radiation levels than x-ray and CT scans BENEFITS OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Small exposure to radiation
If radioisotopes doses were longer, they would damage and harm internal organs
Major risk if the patient is pregnant or breast feeding
Allergies to radioisotopes can occur
Patients who undergo repeated procedures, have a higher risk of developing cancer RISKS OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE RISKS AND BENEFITS - Detects the radiation emitted from radioactive substances
- Substances are injected with a radioactive atom (Carbon-11, Fluorine-18, Oxygen-15, or Nitrogen-13) - PET detects the gamma rays given off Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) - Similar to PET but radioactive substances have longer decay times
- Provides information about blood flow Cardiovascular Imaging Bone Scanning Eliminated in the urine or bowel movement
Allergic reactions to radioisotopes are very rare.
There are no long-term effects Uses radioactive substances to chart the flow of blood through the heart and blood vessels ex. Stress thallium test Detects radiation that collects in bone tissues Substance usually accumulate in areas of high metabolic activity Common Radio Isotopes: Radio Pharmaceuticals are used to examine: amount of radiation is comparable to and often less than that of a diagnostic x-ray specialists use the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) to select amount of radio isotope used Technetium 99 (Tc-99m)
commonly used in diagnostic studies
half life of six years
decays by emitting gamma rays and low energy electrons
gamma rays easily escape body Fluoro-deoxy Glucose incorporates F-18
usually attached to glucose
most commonly used in PET imaging
half life of just under 2 hours
good indicator of cell metabolism Nuclear Medicine is used in: Neurological Applications: Oncologic Applications: Orthopedic Applications: Renal Applications: Cardiac Applications: 1946 1970 Radio active
idodine used Most organs could be
visualized with nuclear medicine procedures 1980 Radio pharmaceuticals were designed for critical diagnoses 1990 PET was becoming an important diagnostic tool 1950 History of Nuclear Medicine Radioactivity was discovered 1896-97 The first hybrid PET/MRI system for humans, created by Siemens, was installed. 2008 Technetium-99m was developed in the 1950's Game Time!! How do Nuclear Medicine Procedures Compare with Other Imaging procedures? Nuclear Medicine detects the radiation coming from a radio pharmaceutical inside the body Nuclear medicine also determines the presence of a disease from the biological changes of tissues Other imaging procedures obtain images by machines that send radiation through the body
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