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Women In Sport
Transcript of Women In Sport
How gender affects sport
How it has changed over the years
Brief History of the 20th Century
The 1900's to1939
The 1940's to 1979
The 1980's to the end of the 20th Century
Woman Sport Personality from the 20th Century
Brief Biography - Early Life
Jacqueline 'Jackie' Joyner-Kersee was born on March 3rd, 1962 in East St. Louis, Illinois. Throughout her teenage years she competed and won several championships and recieved widespread honors in a variety of sports, including track, field, basketball and volleyball. She attended the University of California on a full scholarship and by 19 began training for the Olympics for the Heptaphlon, a series of seven events (200m sprint, 800m run, 100m hurdles, high jump, shot put, long jump and javelin) that are all highly demanding both physically and mentally, especially for someone who suffered from exercise-induced asthma.
Brief Biography - Sport Achievements
Silver Medal, Heptathlon, 1984 Olympics
First woman to score over 7,000 points in the Heptathlon, 1986 Goodwill Games
Gold Medal, Heptathlon, broke world record with 7,291 points (still standing world record), 1988 Olympics
Gold Medal, Long Jump, olympic record with 7.40m, 1988 Olympics
Gold Medeal, Heptathlon, 1992 Olympics
Bronze Medal, Long Jump, 1992 Olympics
Bronze Medal, Long Jump, 1996 Olympics
1st place, Heptathlon, 1998 Goodwill Games
Awards and Honors
Jesse Owens Award, 1986
Sullivan Award for Top Amateur Athlete in the USA, 1986
Jesse Owens Award, 1987
St Louis Walk of Fame Inductee, 2000
NCAA Silver Anniversary Awards Honoree, 2010
Dick Enberg Award, 2011
Jackie as a child
Jackie with her Gold Medal
Personal Life/Life After Sport
In 1986, Jackie married her coach, Bob Kersee
She retired from track and field in 2001 at the age of 38 due to her exercise-induced asthma and age
She has founded the Jackie-Joyner Kersee Youth Center Foundation aimed at encouraging youth in her underprivileged hometown into playing sports
In 2007 she joined Athletes for Hope along with other sporting heroes to support and encourage athletes to make a difference in the world
In 2012 joined the board of the USA Track and Field Organisation
Remembered as the first woman to be featured on the cover of Sports Illustrated
Recognised as the number one greatest female athlete of the 20th century by Sports Illustrated and other sporting countdowns
Revolutionised, inspired and changed the views of many people when it came to women within sport
Continues to encourage sport for children and adults through multiple foundations
Maria Sharapova was born on April 19, 1987 in Nyagan, Siberia, Russia. She began playing tennis at a young age and was enrolled at a tennis academy in Florida by her father at the age of 9. By 14 she was considered professional and claimed her first WTA victory at the AIG Japan Open and also reached the fourth round on her first attempt at Wimbledon all in 2003.
Aside from her outstanding tennis career Sharapova was endorsed by major companies like Nike and Tiffany and Co. She was engaged to marry Sasha Vujacic a Slovenian professional basketball player but the pair split up in 2012.
With her renowned career she now earns $US27.9 million a year which is said to rise when her own line of sweets “Sugarpova” come out.
•In 2007, the WNBA Sixth Woman Award was given out for the first time. Plenette Pierson, now in her sixth season, was the 2007 Sixth Woman Award recipient.
•In the 2004 Olympics, 16-year-old Carly Patterson of Texas became the second American ever to win the Women's All-Around event. She was the first to do so in a year when the Olympics weren't being boycotted by other countries. Patterson retired from gymnastics in 2006 due to lower back problems and a desire to become a recording artist. Her first single, "Temporary Live/Ordinary Girl," will be released March 25, 2008.
•Opening the 2008 Algarve Cup, the U.S. Women’s National Team defeated China by 4-0
•In 2007, Davenport won her 55th career WTA Tour singles title. This win places her at number 7 on the list of all-time title-winners.
While the participation of women in physical activities and the Olympic Games has increased, the percentage of women in governing and administrative bodies of the Olympic Movement has remained low.
With the addition of women's boxing, the 2012 Olympic Games in London were the first in which women competed in every sport on the Olympic programme
National Women's Athletic Association
All-American Girls Professional Baseball League
- In 776 B.C.E. the first Olympic Games were held.
- Alongside the Olympics, here were a set of games, namely the Games of Hera
- Women’s roles in sports historically next appear in the sixteenth century, where in 1567,
- Mary Queen of Scots was the first woman to participate in a game of golf
- In 1704 Sarah Kemble Knight undertook a solo horseback journey from Boston to New York.
- first women’s golf tournament was held at Musselburgh in Scotland in 1811
- The first exercise manual for women was published in 1856 by Catherine Beecher
- In 1875, Wellesley College in Massachusetts opened, requiring physical education as part of the curriculum.
- Annie Oakley, beat her future husband at a shooting competition.
- 1844 saw the women’s singles competition begin at Wimbledon with Maud Watson as its first champion.
- In 1895, Annie Smith Peck, a mountain climber became the first woman to climb the Matterhorn, a mountain on the borders of Switzerland and Italy and in
- 1897, Lena Jordan became the first person to perform a triple somersault on the trapeze.
- Annie Oakley was a pioneer of sexual equality.
- As a child she was known for her shooting skills, helping to support her family, by selling game to local shops and restaurants.
- 1875, she was invited to participate in a shooting contest in Cincinnati, against the well known marksman Frank E Butler.
They were married in 1882.
- Butlers travelled across the country, giving shooting exhibitions
- joined up with Buffalo Bill and his Wild West Show in 1885 for 17 years
- retired to Maryland, where they lived comfortably
- throughout her career she is thought to have taught more than 15,000 women how to use a gun as not only a form of physical and mental exercise but so they could defend themselves.
- died 1926 at the age of 66 from pernicious anaemia. Butler was so heartbroken by the loss of his wife that he refused to eat and passed away himself just over two weeks later.
- women’s sports in the late 1800s focused on correct posture, facial and bodily beauty and health
- prior to 1870, sports for women existed in the form of play activities that were recreational rather than competitive and were informal
- horseback riding for pleasure, showboating and swimming became fashionable, but women were discouraged in exerting themselves due to the dominant belief in the 1800s that each human had a fixed amount of energy; if this energy were used for both physical and intellectual tasks, it could be ‘hazardous’
- such activity was thought to be ‘especially hazardous’ during menstruation due to the woman being “periodically weakened”
- AROUND THIS TIME women were beginning to gain access to higher education and Dr. Edward Clarke published ‘A Fair Chance For Girls’ which sparked a ‘tenacious and acrimonious debate about the capacity of women for physical activity, stating that “both muscular and brain labour must be reduced at the onset of menstruation”.
- manipulating science to reinforce established dogma allowed this belief to prevail for years regardless of repeated examples of women who were perfectly capable of performing both physical feats and intellectual tasks
- many early opportunities for women to engage in physical activity were thwarted by his dogma
Other Useful Facts
Dawn Fraser of Australia won 8 Olympic Medals, including 4 gold medals
Marie-Jose Peric was the first woman to win both the 200m and 400m at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics
•Wilma Rudolph is the first woman to win 3 olympic gold medals in track and field at one olympics in 1960
- Statistics show that female sports do not carry the same weight as male sports. According to the Women's Sports Foundation, male athletes get $179 million more in athletic scholarships each year than females do. Additionally, collegiate institutions spend just 24 percent of their athletic operating budgets on female sports, as well as just 16 percent of recruiting budgets and 33 percent of scholarship budgets on female athletes.
Value of women’s sports undermined
- Unequal coverage when compared to men's sports. Although approximately 40 percent of sport and physical activity participants are women, only 6 to 8 percent of total media sports coverage is devoted to their athletics, according to the Women's Sports Foundation. Additionally, in a study of four major newspapers--USA Today, the Boston Globe, the Orange County Register and the Dallas Morning news--women-only sports stories totaled just 3.5 percent of all sports stories.
Women's sports also tend to be verbally and visually set apart, such as in the name of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). In men's sports, gender is almost never mentioned.
•Soviet gymnast Larissa latynina completes her olympic career in 1964 with 18 medals, more than any other athlete in history
•Gertrude Ederle is the first woman to swim the English channel
•Maureen Connoly is the first woman to win a grand slam, all four major tennis championships
- a legacy of bias against the female athlete.
- trend has been confronted and challenged.
- Girls and women have “tackled” narrow, negative and limiting concepts and deas that they should not participate in sports, sweat, show aggression or compete, and begun to include physical strength and athletic prowess in the definition of femininity.
- traditional stereotypes for females have been slowly changing and evolving.
Men and women gymnasts
Men and women soccer