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LCA iPhone 5

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by

Karen Canon

on 3 November 2016

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Transcript of LCA iPhone 5

Thank you for your Attention!
Start
Goal
Life Cycle Inventory
Life Cycle Impact Assessment
Eco-indicator 99

LCA of a Smartphone
Canon-Rubio K.
Yap C.
ENEN 693/EVDS 683.85
Life Cycle Assessment

Scope
Functional Unit
Production
Use Phase
3 years
EoL
Smartphone
iPhone 5
Product System
Improvement possibilities
Environmental Impact
Product Marketing
Intended
Applications
Information
Gaps
Process
contribution
in the
production
of the
smartphone
Intended
Audience
Manufacturers
Suppliers
China
Calgary
Unit Processes
Raw Materials
Use Phase
Transportation
Data Collection
1. Shell
2. Screws and
supporting parts
3. Battery
4. LCD
5. Circuit Board
6. Packaging
Smartphone
256 grams
110 g iPhone 5
146 g Packaging
1. Shell
2. Screws and
supporting Parts
3. Battery
4. LCD
5. Circuit board
6. Packaging
Apple
Apple

Std Composition
Std Composition
Std Composition
Apple
21 Components including metals, glass, plastics, minerals, solvents and paper.
Storage Capacity 1440mAh
Drain rate of
54 mA
Operation of
26.7 h
Losses
10%
Voltage
Charger
5V
Cycles
985.5
28.10MJ
User Energy Consumption
Stand By Energy Consumption
Time connected
26280 h
Drain rate
0.34W
Charger
5V
32.17MJ
Energy Info
22 Smartphones were considered
Use Phase
iPhone 5 consumption is 60.27
Average consumption is 64.19
Assembly
According to iPhone weight,
approximately 7.48 MJ were used
Raw Materials and manufacture
According to iPhone weight,
approximately 147.19 MJ were used
Recycling
Average consumption is
assumed 2.55MJ
Energy as function of weight
No relation found
Inverse relation found
Proportional relation found
No relation found
China
Jiangsu
Guandong
Shanghai
Taiwan
Calgary
Smartphone + Packaging
Characterization
Single Score
Smartphone
Characterization
Single Score
Results - Energy
Questions?...
Only Ecotoxicity and Fossil fuels impact categories were sensitive to the use phase energy consumption
Smartphone + Packaging
Smartphone
S
e
n
s
i
t
i
v
i
t
y
S
e
n
s
i
t
i
v
i
t
y
Results - Lifespan
Respiratory Organics, Respiratory Inorganics and Fossil Fuel impact categories are the most sensitive ones to the smartphone lifespan.
1, 2 and 3 years were considered.
Smartphone + Package
Smartphone
Results - Recycling
Ecotoxicity, Minerals, Land Use and Fossil fuels impact categories are the most sensitive ones to the smartphone recycling.
Smartphone + Packaging
Smartphone
Results - Manufacturing
To show the impact of the energy mix, 3 locations were evaluated using Total Single Score for the analysis
Results of contribution to overall impact is in agreement with the literature.

China
Resp. Inorganics
Acidification, Eutrophication
Land Use
Canada
Resp. Organics
Carcinogenics
Fossil fuels
Germany
Radiation
Ozone Layer
Minerals
Coal
Extra Heavy Oil
(Oil Sand)
Nuclear Energy
Methods Comparison
Smartphone + Packaging
Smartphone
Eco-indicator 99
Traci 2.1
Eco-indicator 99
Traci 2.1
Conclusions
Transportation
Transportation
Transportation
Transportation
phone drop off
paper drop off
manufacturing


3. Repurposing as they did in the case study may be a better option.
If we go further....
Improvement possibilities
Packaging impacts leads to the research in less pollutant materials
Suppliers and Assembly facilities can be located in less pollutant locations
Marketing campaigns regarding user culture
Energy consumption
Device packaging
Process contribution
New developments in battery and shell design can lead to less pollutant materials
Marketing campaigns regarding user culture
Information Gaps
There is no sufficient information regarding:
Energy requirements in the manufacture and recycling stages.
Processes and disassemble procedures for the End-of-life stage
1. Recycling Smartphones may not have as significant of an impact on human health, ecosystems, and resources.
Full transcript