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Copy of The Space - Prezi Template

Space themed prezi template with many elements: earth, moon, spaceship, the milky way and an animated astronaut. 7 frames already included to the path. Download link in the in the end of this prezi
by

Doaa Alkhateeb

on 15 April 2014

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Transcript of Copy of The Space - Prezi Template

Big Bang Theory
By Doa'a Alkhateeb
Thank You
Now we are here, and everyone wants to know what happened at the beginning of everything, where did the Universe come from? How it began?
Cosmology can help us to find the answers for these questions.
First of all, let us take a look
to our universe...
Most of our universe is dark energy which formed 73% and 25% is dark matter..
Just 5% is visible to us .
Intergalactic gas, Stars, Etc
There are several theories of how our universe came into existence.
Of these theories, One of the most well known is the big bang theory...
The graphic scheme above is an artist's concept illustrating the expansion of a portion of a flat universe.
Now, What is the big bang theory?
Broadly accepted theory for the origin and evolution of our universe.
1. Expansion of space
2. Cosmic microwave background radiation
3. Abundance of primordial elements
Other evidence:
At 10 43 sec
(time from big bang)
10+32 K
At 10-39 sec 10+24 K Quarks are formed. There are 6 types – but it's too hot for them to bind together.
The quarks now bind in threes to form protons and neutrons.
At 10 -8 secs , 10 +5 billion K
Electrons formed.
Let's start at the very beginning around 13.7 billion years ago, before there is any time on space as we know it, actually we really don't know what there was at or before the beginning of the universe , but we know now what happened at a tiny fraction of a second later…
it's said that the universe expanded rapidly from hot and dense state into the vast cosmos we currently inhabit, and continues to expand today.
The universe was born when it unleashed and unbelievable amount of energy, And for a brave second it expanded faster than the speed of light, growing to the size of a galaxy.
http://resources.schoolscience.co.uk/STFC/bang/bang.htm
At 0.0001 sec, 10,000billion K Protons and neutrons bind together to form nuclei of only two elements:
Hydrogen 75% and Helium 25%.
Temperatures were so high that the random motions of particles were at relativistic speeds.
and particle–antiparticle pairs of all kinds were being continuously created and destroyed in collisions.
At 0.1 - 10 sec , 100 billion K
*The universe is still too hot for electrons to bind to these nuclei.
*The mixture of charged particles ± is called “a”.
*The plasma absorbs electromagnetic (including light). So the universe is opaque no light can get through it.
At 3 min, 1 billion K
*The universe is now cool enough for the nuclei to hold onto electrons to forming atoms.
*it is still made of hydrogen and helium.
*Now the electromagnetic can travel through the universe.
At 300,00 years , 1000K
Stars and galaxies start forming; gravity starts to pull the hydrogen and helium together. As it is pulled into clumps, the atoms speed up.
These fast atoms make up a hot gas. Eventually, the hydrogen atoms are moving fast enough to start fusing together to form helium. This release huge amount of energy and the gas starts glow; a star is born.
At 400 million years, 100K
The early Universe was not uniform – there were huge clumps of gas. Within these clumps, stars were born.
Once been a clump of gas, became a cluster of millions of stars – often spinning around on itself. This is a galaxy.
At 2billion years, 20 K
Heavier element formed
The first stars contained only hydrogen and helium. They glow because of the nuclear fusion of hydrogen. This forms helium and releases an immense amount of energy. When these stars died, they collapsed in on themselves. The temperature of their cores rose, triggering new fusion reactions. It was in these furnaces that the heavier elements were made. Before these dying stars, there no elements apart from hydrogen and helium.
At 2billion years, 20 K .....Heavier element formed :
The first stars contained only hydrogen and helium. They glow because of the nuclear fusion of hydrogen. This forms helium and releases an immense amount of energy. When these stars died, they collapsed in on themselves. The temperature of their cores rose, triggering new fusion reactions. It was in these furnaces that the heavier elements were made. Before these dying stars, there no elements apart from hydrogen and helium.
At 5 billion years , 8 K
Our Sun was probably born from the remains of a nearby supernova – exploding star. The remnants – mostly hydrogen and helium – would have been pulled together by gravity.
However, other elements would have been created in the furnace of the earlier dying star.
Some of these would have orbited the early sun and have been drawn together to form the earth and other planets.
12 billion years 3 K, the first very simple forms of life appear. These organisms were like tiny plants changing the Sun's rays into food.
After that, the sequence of organisms appearance, geologic time punch on the ground, continental drift, and the emergence of human life happened .Also, life continued until now...
As the distance between galaxies increases today, in the past galaxies were closer together.
Origin of the theory
Different philosophies, have developed close formulas to the emergence of the universe, all of them indicate that the creation associated darkness, water and irregularity that began in the regularity immediately.
Many of the scientists pointed to the principle of this theory, but with a different name.
Evidence for the Theory
There are three main lines of evidence that are most-often used:
Hubble Observations of distant galaxies show that these objects are redshifted , and moving apart from each other...
what is the redshift?
redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object moving away from the observer is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.
This is observed by the Hubble when monitoring of the galaxies, and say Galaxies are moving apart from each other.
The space between galaxies expands, not the galaxies themselves; objects held together by their own gravity are always contained within a patch of non expanding space, like spots on an inflating balloon.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB)
is the thermal radiation assumed to be left over from the "Big Bang" of cosmology.
Georges Lemaitre
*The universe had started from single atom what he called his "hypothesis of the primeval atom"
Alexander Friedmann
*The universe is in permanent expansion, and ruled out the possibility that the universe is static.
George Gamow
*if the universe was created with a “hot Big Bang”, then the high density would cause rapid expansion.
A sufficiently sensitive radio telescope shows a faint background glow, almost exactly the same in all directions, that is not associated with any star, galaxy, or other object.
Serendipitous discovery in 1964 by American radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, and earned the discoverers the 1978 Nobel Prize.
Using the Big Bang model it is possible to calculate the concentration of helium-4, helium-3, deuterium, and lithium-7 in the universe as ratios to the amount of ordinary hydrogen.
And what we see in very distant galaxies and old stars is just right.
The measured abundances all agree at least roughly with those predicted from a single value of the baryon-to-photon ratio.
Explanation..
When the universe cooled enough, protons and electrons combined to form neutral atoms.
These atoms could no longer absorb the thermal radiation, and so the universe became transparent.
The time period when neutral atoms first formed as the recombination step, and the event shortly afterwards when photons started to travel freely through space.
These are the photons that formed today's micro cosmic background radiation. And decreased temperature over about 13 billion years until it got to be 2.7 Kelvin
Galaxies evolution and distribution
The first galaxies formed about a billion years after the Big Bang, and since then larger structures have been forming, such as galaxy clusters and superclusters.
Populations of stars have been aging and evolving, so that distant galaxies (which are observed as they were in the early universe) appear very different from nearby galaxies (observed in a more recent state).

Panoramic view of the entire near-infrared sky reveals the distribution of galaxies beyond the Milky Way.
Primordial gas clouds
In 2011 astronomers found The primordial gas clouds were contain only the lightest elements — hydrogen and helium — that were created in the Big Bang.
Before this discovery, all other astronomical objects have been observed to contain heavy elements that are formed in stars.
Since the clouds of gas have no heavy elements, they likely formed in the first few minutes after the Big Bang, during Big Bang nucleosynthesis.
Recently; researchers at Harvard Astrophysical Observatory, using a specialized telescope called Bicep at the South Pole found -for the first time-
The Gravitational Waves which was predicted in 1916 by Albert Einstein.
Gravitational waves
are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as a wave, travelling outward from the source.
one moment, there are still more of evidence..
As gravitational waves pass throw the universe they compress and expand space finding the very first gravitational wave will tell us of the birth universe
References
http://science.nasa.gov/
http://www.theguardian.com/
/http://www.scientificamerican.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universe
http://www.hawking.org.uk
http://www.universeforum.org/einstein
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bang
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_microwave_background_radiation
https://www.facebook.com/BrianGreenePhysicist

Books
• Sagan, Carl , /Cosmos
Farrell, John .The Day Without Yesterday: Lemaitre, Einstein, and the Birth of Modern Cosmology. New York
• Woolfson, M. Time, Space, Stars and Man: The Story of Big
• A Brief History of Time / Stephen Hawking
Amoeba
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