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Transcript of GOLF
History Of Golf
To many people, golf may seem like a simple sport. You swing the club to hit the ball until you get it into the hole. What they don’t realise is the physical strain on the body as a result of the sport.
The most common injury received from playing golf is lower back pain. The main cause is the repetitive swing of the club which can cause numerous problems in the lower back. The most common problem is a slipped disc in the lower region of the spine (American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, 2008). Studies have shown that golfers who carry their own clubs are more likely to have lower back pain. If back pain occurs, heat packs should be applied to relieve the pain.
‘In 2005 it was calculated that there were nearly 32 000 golf courses in the world’ (Better Health Channel 2011).
Despite this popularity, Golf is often misunderstood in terms of the health benefits it can provide when played on a regular basis.
Golf is one of the most flexible sports, enabling participation individually, within a group or a competition environment. As you can play at your own pace with your chosen intensity, involvement is not limited to a particular age group or skill level, rather it can be enjoyed by all age groups, including seniors.
The Game Plan
History of Golf
Health Benefits of Golf
An average golf course is 5.5 kilometres which, when walking from tee to tee, provides clear cardiovascular benefits. If you decide to also pull your cart, it is expected that you will burn an additional ‘300 calories, depending on the weight and the speed in which you walk’ (Health Benefits of Golf, 2011).
Furthermore, The American Journal of Medicine, August 2012, published a study, which noted that over time, subjects who participated regularly in a game of golf compared to those who did not improved in the following:
Lowered their blood pressure
Increased their strength
Aerobic exercise capacity (Golf and your health 2011).
The origin of golf has often been debated over the years. It was thought to have stemmed from a game, very similar to golf,played in France in the 15th century. called Jeu De Mail. It is believed that Scottish soldiers brought the Jeu De Mail game over from France to Scotland where it was then modified into the game we now know as golf (Jacubowicz n.d).
It is recorded that King James II of Scotland banned the game in an act in 1457. It is believed that the King thought that the men were neglecting more important sports such as archery which they believed would be useful in defending the country (Gillmeister 2002)
It wasn't until the 16th century that golf was permitted as King James VI of Scotland (who became James I of England) became an avid participant. Golf then became the adopted game of the royals, which included Mary Queen of Scots (the first woman to play the game). It was 200 years later before golf was formalized and the Royal and Ancient Golf club was founded. The first mayor competition (the first Open) was played in 1861 (Finnley 1999).
The first golf club outside of Britain was in India in 1820, Asia in 1888 to 1890, Japan in 1901, and then Australia and New Zealand in 1871. The game of golf made its way to the United States of America by wealthy travelers who brought the game over from Scotland in the 1880's. it was then that the first golf course was built at St Andrews of Yorkers, New York in 1888 (Hudson 2009).
When you hear about golf it's safe to say that many have a picture in their minds of a group of boring old retired men walking around trying to hit a tiny ball with a thin little stick, right? Wrong! Golf is a game of control, precision, technique, and concentration. It is a game that has enamored people for thousands of years and has survived changing trends. With golf courses throughout the world and millions of equipment and accessories sold each year, golf has become a game in which young, old, men ,women, and even children enjoy.
Injuries in the wrists, elbows and shoulders are also common among both professional and amateur golfers. Overuse causes injuries to the wrists which can be treated with splints and braces. ‘Golfer’s Elbow’ is a common injury among golfers. Poor swing technique can cause an inflammation of the tendons in the forearm which causes pain on the inside of the elbow when movement occurs (American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, 2008). Shoulder pain in golfers is also caused by poor swing technique. The small muscles around the shoulder joint become inflamed and if not treated, may eventually result in tears in the muscles (American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, 2008). Ice packs can help reduce the inflammation and reduce pain as well as anti-inflammatories (prescribed by a doctor).
It has been shown that if golfers warm up for at least 10 minutes before playing they are likely to have less than half the amount of injuries as golfers who do not warm up before playing. Also, having the proper swing technique (which can be taught by professionals and instructors) will reduce the amount and extent of injuries received while playing golf.
Whether you are a golf enthusiast or just the occasional weekend gamer, golf is a great means of relaxation and exercise. With over 30 000 golf courses created throughout the world, golf has become a sport that has grown with great speed since its beginnings in Scotland. Many use golf as a way to increases physical fitness, mental well being, and use it as a great way to interact with others. Golf is one of the few games that anyone, regardless of age or sex, can compete against each other, and with a little pre game stretching and learning the correct swing techniques, golf can be an injury free and enjoyable pastime.
History of Golf:
1. Finley, Thomas (1999). Golf in the upstate-since 1895. Olde Sport Publishing, Greenville Sc, Viewed 30 August 2013 <www.finleyongolf.com/articles/theearltyhistoryofgolf.htm>
2. Gillmeister, Heiner (nd). Golf on the Rhine: On the origins of golf, with sidelights on polo. Viewed 30 August 2013 <www.iaak.uni-Bonn.de/people/gilmeister-golf-on-the-Rhine>
3. Hudson, Simon (2009). An introduction to golf tourism. Good Fellow Publishers LImited, Woodeaton, Oxenford <www.goodfellowpublishers.com/free_files/filegolftourism01.pdf>
4. Jacubowicz, Henry (nd). Jeu De Mail. Retrieved on 28 August 2013
Health Benefits of Golf:
1. Golf- Health Benefits 2011, Better Health Channel (2013 State Government of Victoria), viewed 9 September 2013 <http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Golf_the_health_benefits>
2. Healthy Years, 8.1 (2011), Health benefits of Golf. General Reference Center GOLD, viewed 9 September 2013,
3. Harvard Health Commentaries 17 June 2011, Golf and Your Health. Academic OneFile, viewed 9 September 2013 <http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA290297294&v=2.1&u=swinburne1&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w>
Common Golf Injuries:
1.Golf Injuries, Stop Sports Injuries, Viewed 10 September 2013 <http://www.stopsportsinjuries.org/golf-injury-prevention.aspx>
2. American Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine (2008), Golf Injuries, Viewed 10 September 2013 <http://www.sportsmed.org/uploadedFiles/Content/Patient/Sports_Tips/ST%20Golf%20Injuries%2008.pdf>
3.Top 5 Golf Injuries, PhysioRoom.com, Viewed 10 September 2013 <http://www.physioroom.com/sports/golf/6_shoulder_pain.php>
1. Nike Golf, Nike Golf: No cup is safe, 13 January 2013, <www.youtube.com/watch?v=2NCDYjHtEcU>
2.Today's Top Stories, Watch Tiger Woods Nike Golf Commercial, 31 January 2013,
As the ‘burden of credibility assessment and quality control has shifted from professional gatekeepers to individual information seekers’ Metzjer (2007) it was imperative to critically assess the credibility of our online sources. We decided to use the five criteria outlined in the article which were; accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency and coverage, along with ‘surface characteristics’ Walthan and Burkell (2002). From the total of six criteria, at least three were required upon assessment of each source to deem the source credible. Due to the nature of Golf as a topic and our chosen themes, social media platforms were not ideal as an informational resource, rather they were used to navigate to informative websites produced by state government or specialists in this field.
Group involvement within a game of Golf can assist with improving mental health. This is achieved by being a means of keeping in contact with friends, reducing stress, providing opportunities to meet new people and developing community connectedness through various local and global Golf Clubs (Better Health Channel, 2011).
The main contributor of Health Benefits while playing golf is the time spent walking. Despite the popular belief that only intense exercise is beneficial, research over the past decade has proven that moderately paced exercise is beneficial, including periods of inactivity.