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PALS

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Katharine S

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Transcript of PALS

Carrie Helling, Sylvia Lesisz, & Katharine Sroka
Psy 564

Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies
What is PALS?
a class-wide tutoring program that uses peer-mediated instruction to improve academic skills

a "Best Practice" by the U.S. Department of Education
What does PALS look like?
Students work in pairs
Focus is on Grade-Level Skills
Kindergarten
PALS Reading 2-6
1. Partner Reading with Retell

2. Paragraph Shrinking

3. Prediction Relay
PALS
Four Key Elements:
1. Cooperative Learning
2. Highly Structured Interaction
3. Focus on Key Grade-Level Skills
4. Reinforcement of Academic Behaviors
higher and lower performing students work together
roles of tutor and tutee (Coach and Reader)
Students get individualized help from peers
Targeted Population:
Originally grades 2-6 for Reading
extended to Kindergarten, First-Grade, and High School
Math PALS (K-5)
Phonological Awareness
Phonics
Decoding
Sight Words
Fluency (limited)
First-Grade
Phonological Awareness (limited)
Phonics
Decoding
Sight Words
Fluency
Grades 2-6 and High School
Fluency
Comprehension Strategies
Retelling
Summarizing
Predicting (inferencing)
Teacher explains to students how to do lessons, then students do them with a partner
Clear, scripted directions
Partners complete 3 activities:
1. Partner Reading
...With Retell
3. Paragraph Shrinking
4. Prediction Relay
Higher performing student reads text aloud for 5 minutes
Lower performing student rereads the same material
Corrections:
Reading error - tutor says, "Stop, you missed that word. Can you figure it out?"
The reader figures out the word within 4 seconds, or the tutor says, "That word is _____. What word?" Reader then repeats word.
Tutor says, "Good. Read the sentence again."
1 point - each correctly read sentence.
If reading error - 1 point after sentence is read correctly
Points:
After both students read, the lower-performing student retells for one or two minutes the sequence of what occurred
Points:
Student earns 10 points for the retell.
Students read aloud one paragraph at a time and identify its main idea
Coach guides main idea statements (i.e. who or what)
Reader takes information and expresses main idea in 10 words or less
After 5 minutes, students switch roles.
Corrections:
If tutor recognizes an incorrect summarization, they say to reader, "That's not quite right. Skim the paragraph and try again."
If summary exceeds 10 words, tutor says, "Shrink it."
Points:
1 point - correctly identifying who or what
1 point - correctly stating the most important thing about the who or what
1 point - stating the main idea in 10 words or less
Requires students to make and check predictions
Reader makes prediction about what will be learned on next half page
Reader reads the half page aloud while tutor corrects errors
Tutor confirms or challenges the prediction
Reader summarizes the main idea of the half page
After 5 min. switch roles
Corrections:
If prediction unreasonable, say, "I don't agree. Think of a better prediction."
Points:
1 point - each reasonable prediction
1 point - reading each half page
1 point - accurately confirming or challenging each prediction
1 point - each component (who/what, what mainly happened, + 10 or fewer words) of each summary
Weekly Reinforcements/Rewards
Pairs earn pts for completing activities, points accumulate
Kindergarten: Teacher recognition for completing points sheet
High School: Pts provide "dollars" in token economy; dollars go toward prizes
Grade 1-6: Pts go toward a team total; winning team gets class recognition (applause)
Why Use PALS?
increases academic learning time
promotes positive, academically-focused social interaction
teachers can focus on pairs
doesn't take away class time
affordable
easy to implement
actively involves all students in tasks they can perform successfully
increases student opportunity to read
provides positive and productive peer interaction
helps teachers accommodate academic diversity
research has found it to be an
enjoyable
activity for both students and teachers
accelerates student achievement
optimizes instructors' time
allows students with disabilities to spend more time in a less restrictive environment and increases their access to the general education curriculum
EFFECTIVE
PALS Is Effective For:
Low-Achieving Students
Average-Achieving Students
High-Achieving Students
Title I and non-Title I
Urban, Suburban, and Rural
Students with special needs
Mainstreamed students with learning disabilities
Tier 1 and Tier 2
Implementation:
Feasible and affordable
1 day on-site training
Manual and materials from Vanderbilt University OR
PALS Math
Coaching and practice
Grades K - 5
Students work on sheet of problems in skill area
Coach uses a sheet of questions, differing by problem type, designed to guide the Player
Coaches use a correction procedure
References:
Thank You!
(handouts)
English Language Learners
Now You Try...
MAKE YOUR OWN
Limitations & Future Research
-Some children don't respond
-Amount of technical support
-PALS for Grades 7 & 8
Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Burish, P. (2000). Peer-assisted learning strategies: An evidence-based practice to promote reading achievement. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 15(2), 85-103.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Thompson, A., Otaiba, S. A., Yen, L. Yang, N. J.,… O’Connor, R. E. (2001). Is reading important in readiness programs? A randomized field trial with teachers as program implementers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 251-267.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Thompson, A., Svenson, E., Yen, L., Otaiba, S. A.,…Saenz, L. (2001). Peer-assisted learning strategies in reading: Extensions for kindergarten, first grade, and high school. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 15-21.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1995). Acquisition and transfer effects of classwide peer-assisted learning strategies in mathematics for students with varying learning histories. School Psychology Review, 24(4), 604-621.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Karns, K. (2001). Enhancing kindergartners’ mathematical development: Effects of peer-assisted learning strategies. Elementary School Journal, 101(5), 495-510.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Kazdan, S. (1999). Effects of peer-assisted learning strategies on high school students with serious reading problems. Remedial and Special Education, 20(5), 309-318.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Yazdian, L. & Powell, S. R. (2002). Enhancing first-grade children’s mathematical development with peer-assisted learning strategies. School Psychology Review, 31(4), 569-583.

Mathes, P. G., Howard, J. K., Allen, S. H., & Fuchs, D. (1998). Peer-assisted learning strategies for first-grade readers: Responding to the needs of diverse learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 33(1), 62-94.

McMaster, K. L., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2007). Promises and limitations of peer-assisted learning strategies in reading. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 5(2), 97-112.

Spörer, N., & Brunstein, J. C. (2009). Fostering the reading comprehension of secondary school students through peer-assisted learning: Effects on strategy knowledge, strategy use, and task performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(4), 289-297.
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