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Immune System

The lymphatic system and immune functions.
by

Brandon Poe

on 1 November 2015

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Transcript of Immune System

Lymphatics and
the Immune System
Immune Function
Innate Immunity
Two parts to Adaptive Immunity
Drain excess interstitial fluid
Transport dietary lipids
Carry out immune responses
The immune system is really a functional system. It uses anatomical components of multiple systems to perform.
All parts that we discuss occur as a single response
We will discuss them as separate parts of the immune system
Don’t forget that the whole system works together
blood cells
cardiovascular transport
lymphatic organs
dendritic cells (skin, etc.)
interstitial fluid
The immune system works as an integrated whole.
Know Your Enemy
Much of the function of the immune system will be described in the context of military or police metaphors.
The first thing to know about are the pathogens.
from the Greek root meaning "disease" or "suffering"
from the Greek root meaning "to be born"
Pathogens are infectious agents which can include the following:
bacteria
viruses
fungi
parasites
single-celled protists
multicellular organisms
Photo credit: http://medicineworld.org/cancer/lead/10-2007/hpv-test-beats-pap-in-detecting-cervical-cancer.html
Photo credit:
http://www.dcss.cs.amedd.army.mil/field/FLIP%20Disk%2041/FLIP.html
Photo credit: http://www.wpclipart.com/medical/medical_problems/Cholera_bacteria.png.html
Photo credit:
http://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/tags/giardia/
Photo credit:
http://www.helpfulhealthtips.com/amoebas-symptoms-causes-suggestions/
Photo credit:
http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/londonmet/news/latest-news/february-2010/london-met-phd-student-to-present-work-in-parliament.cfm
Not specific (doesn’t use antibodies)
Barriers – skin, mucosal membranes
Inflammation

Cells


Complement


Interferon
redness, heat, swelling, pain, loss of function

macrophages and other phagocytes
natural killer cells (NK cells)

cascade of proteins that results in cell lysis
“We make holes in cells”

protein released by infected cells to signal neighbors of viral infection
stops protein synthesis and interferes with viral reproduction
This figure was commissioned by D.A.W. and drawn by P. Cull for the Medical Illustration Department at St Bartholomew's Medical College
From: http://focosi.altervista.org/pathohomoprocess.html
Cell-mediated Immunity






Antibody-mediated Immunity
Involves interactions between T-cell and other cells
Antigen presenting cells (macrophages, dendritic cells, diseased body cells, etc.)
Leads to direct attack by T -cells or indirect through NK cells or macrophages

"blood borne”
Circulating antibodies
Released by B-cells (plasma cells)
Exogenous Presentation



Endogenous Presentation
Phagocytic cells break down pathogens
At the end of phagocytic pathway, residual material is used as antigens to present to T -cells
Uses Class II MHC proteins

Cells of the body continually present antigens on their surface
Immune system has eliminated lymphocytes that make antibodies or TCR against self-antigens
Diseased cells will present abnormal antigens on their surface
Presented to T -cells
Uses Class I MHC proteins
Antigen Presenting Cells
Adaptive Immunity
Lymphocyte Maturation
Lymphocytes are born in red bone marrow
Maturation takes place in primary lymphatic tissue


Two phases
Positive selection (T-cells only)



Negative selection (T- and B-cells)
Bone marrow for B-cells
Thymus for T-cells
From:
http://mesotheliomaclassaction.com/
Lymphocytes are presented with antigen-MHC complexes
Successful interaction with antigen-MHC stimulates release of a survival factor
Lymphocytes are presented with self antigens
Strong binding to self-antigens induces apoptosis
Lymphocyte Activation
Antigen-Antibody Interactions
P L A N O
Precipitation


Lysis


Agglutination


Neutralization


Opsonization
small antigens (proteins) do not dissolve
cleared away by phagocytes

result of classical complement pathway
holes in cells die

large antigens (cells) that no longer dissolve in fluid
clumping

antigen coated with antibodies
inactivated

antibodies have a macrophage binding site
similar to what complement C3b does
Antibodies
Immunoglobulin
From Protein Database (PDB) Molecule of the Month (http://www.pdb.org/pdb/static.do?p=education_discussion/molecule_of_the_month/index.html)
Which pathogen must infect a host cell in order to be able to reproduce?

A) Virus
B) Bacterium
C) Parasite
D) Fungus
What do eukaryotes have that prokaryotes do not?

A) Ribosomes
B) Flagella
C) Internal membranes
D) Advanced physiology
Which of the following, specifically, would generate an antibody response?

A) Pathogen
B) Pyrogen
C) Carcinogen
D) Antigen
Which component of the inflammatory response can be initiated by pyrogens?

A) Heat
B) Swelling
C) Redness
D) Loss of function
What term describes the process of phagocytic cells moving into infected tissue from the blood?

A) Emigration
B) Chemotaxis
C) Vasodilation
D) Permeability
Which of the following combinations is correct for antigen-presenting cell interaction with a mature lymphocyte?

A) Macrophage – MHC II – CD4 – TH-cell
B) Macrophage – MHC I – CD8 – TH-cell
C) Body Cell – MHC II – CD8 – TC-cell
D) Body Cell – MHC I – CD4 – TC-cell
Where are T-lymphocytes born?

A) Spleen
B) Lymph nodes
C) Bone Marrow
D) Thymus
Which is the most numerous white blood cell?

A) Eosinophil
B) Monocyte
C) Neutrophil
D) Lymphocyte
Complement Pathways
Classical Pathway



Alternative Pathway
requires antibody
involves C1, C2, and C4
leads to MAC formation
results in lysis and opsonization

non-specific
C3b binding to pathogen surface
leads to MAC formation
results in lysis and opsonization
Phagocyte recruitment
Which of the following are an example of
innate immunity?

A) Immunoglobulins in mother's milk
B) Cytotoxic T-cells
C) Plasma cells secreting antibodies into the blood
D) The skin
Which of the following is an antimicrobial secretion of the skin?

A) mucus
B) tears
C) gastric juice
D) sebum
http://www.radiolab.org/2009/sep/07/sculptors-of-monumental-narrative/
Lymph Node
Spleen
Thymus
Lymphatic Organs
Lymphatic vessels

Lymph nodes
Tonsils
Thymus
Spleen
MALT (Peyer's Patches)
Appendix
Capillaries
Ducts
Trunks
Cisterna Chyli
Tonsil
Mucosa-Associated Lymphatic Tissue (MALT)
Appendix
Photo credit:
http://pathology.mc.duke.edu/research/PTH225.html
C
H
C
the Immune System
Drain excess interstitial fluid
Transport dietary lipids
Carry out immune responses
Lymphatics and
image source: http://www.skrewtips.com/key-steps-to-preventing-mrsa-infection-naturally.html
Red Bone Marrow
Which lymphatic organ is situated to react to food-borne or airborne infectious agents?

A) Lymph node
B) Spleen
C) Intestinal Peyer's Patches
D) Tonsils
Which lymphatic organ is situated to react to food-borne or airborne infectious agents?

A) Lymph node
B) Spleen
C) Intestinal Peyer's Patches
D) Tonsils
All images (unless otherwise noted) are from CNX Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax College. Sept 1, 2015. http://cnx.org/contents/14fb4ad7-39a1-4eee-ab6e-3ef2482e3e22@7.28:1/Preface
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