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Biomes

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by

Jennifer Hoversten

on 5 March 2014

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Transcript of Biomes

Biomes
Tundra
Location
55°-70° North latitude
mostly in Northern Hemisphere
circumnavigates the North Pole
20% of Earth's surface

Climate
coldest & driest biome
6-10 inches of precipitation per year (snow)
windy (30-60 miles/hour)
average annual temperature is -18°F
Winter: cold & dark, average temperature -94°F
land is permanently frozen; 10in-3ft deep
Summer: light almost 24 hours/day, temperature 37-60°F
Fall & Spring seasons are short

Plants & Vegetation
barren land
frozen ground
Summer: top layer melts and creates soggy land with many marshes, bogs, and lakes
growing season: 50-60 days
treeless (roots cannot grow)
shrubs, mosses, heaths, and lichen
soil: low in nutrients & minerals
Animals
shrews
hares
rodents
wolves
foxes
bears
deer
rabbits
caribou
polar bears
lemmings
insects
migratory birds
Biomes of the World
Taiga
Location
below the Tundra
Northern Hemisphere
mid to high latitudes
largest biome
Climate
average below freezing for 6 months
50-100 "frost free" days
12-33 inches of rain, snow, & dew
Winter: cold with snow, -65° to 30°F
Summer: warm, rainy, and humid, 20° to 70°F
Fall & Spring seasons are short
Plants & Vegetation
many evergreen trees such as pine, white, spruce, and hemlock
evergreens have thin waxy needles that are kept through the year (help with survival)
lichen & mosses
Animals
insects
lynx
wolverines
bobcats
rabbits
red deer
elk
migratory birds
Desert
Grasslands
Location
Prairies:
mid-continent

Savannah:
Africa
Climate
Prairie:
temperate=mild
cool winter/hot summer
low precipitation (fertile soil)

Savannah:
tropical, warm all year
more rain (less fertile soil)
Plants & Vegetation
grasses are the main plant because of irregular rainfall
grasses grow quickly
have short roots
Prairies also have wheat, corn, and oats
Animals
Prairies:
prairie dogs
foxes
buffalo
Savannah:
lions
elephants
giraffes
zebras
More hoofed animals here than anywhere else due to running on hardier, drier land
Deciduous Forest
Tropical Rain Forest
Water Biomes
Location & Climate
mid-latitudes
dry, hot
sandy or rocky soil
soil is poor in plant/animal decay but rich in minerals
Plants & Vegetation
little plant life
cacti
shrubs
Adaptations:
holds water
shallow, wide roots
no leaves to get water
Animals
animals hunt at night (nocturnal)
can go without water for long periods of time
no hair
burrow
camouflage
insects, lizards, snakes, birds, rodents
Human Impacts
oil
polar desert-> global warming
Climate & Location
midlatitudes (by the coasts)
temperate climate
decent precipitation
fertile soil
Plants & Vegetation
trees the lose their broad leaves
plants
shrubs
plants can grow large due to fertile soil
long growing season
Animals
wolves
birds
deer
bear
Adaptations:
camouflage
hooves/paws
migration
hibernation
store food for winter
Human Impacts
tearing down for farming
highly populated
use of lumber for hardwood floors
Climate & Location
near equator in tropics
hot & humid
lots of rainfall
not very fertile soil because trees take it all
Plants & Vegetation
few plants on ground because sunlight is scarce
diverse plants & animals
ex. Orchid will grow up the tree to reach sunlight
low plants do not require as much sunlight
50% of Earth's plants & animals life lives here
Animals
very diverse animals
snakes look like vines because they live in trees for camouflage
Human Impacts
Deforestation:
1) logging
2) mining
3) farming
4) grazing
1 species goes extinct every 15 minutes
medicine
Location
Freshwater
made up of lakes, streams, rivers, ponds, swamps, bogs
little salt
Saltwater
oceans & seas
plentiful amounts of salt
has 3 zones:
1) euphotic zone at top where light reaches
2) disphotic zone in the middle where very little light reaches
3) aphotic zone at the bottom and is completely dark
Plants & Vegetation
Animals
Human Impacts
Freshwater
plants & algae provide oxygen for animals
some plants have strong roots to keep them anchored
some have stems to bend with movement
water lilis, algae float on top of water
cattails, reeds
Freshwater
variety of fish, birds, insects, amphibians, and crustaceans
some need movement in a river to survive
some have suction cups to not be carried by currents
Freshwater
hydroelectric power to produce electricity
dams (good and bad) hurt salmon by not allowing them to swim upstream
pollution & fertilizers
Saltwater
over 1 million species and may be as many as 9 million species we haven't found yet
marine algae such as kelp
phytoplankton
Saltwater
very biodiverse
mollusks, fish, whales, crustaceans, bacteria, fungi, sea anemones
many mammals have blubber to survive the cold
sea otter have an extreme amount of hair to keep warm
blue whale is the biggest animal on Earth
Saltwater
food, medicines, oil, other resources, and recreation
poisoning and dynamiting of coral reefs, catching unwanted fish, dragging nets on the sea floor, overfishing popular species
pollution
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