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Geologic Time Scale

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Cameron Arcand

on 26 March 2013

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Transcript of Geologic Time Scale

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli By Callie Arcand
period 2 Geologic Time Frame Precambrian Time Lasted: 4.6 billion years ago- 544 million years ago

very hot temperatures
over time the climate cooled down
blanket of gases: nitrogen, carbon
dioxide, and water vapor; very little oxygen Paleozoic Era Lasted: 544- 245 million years ago
Periods of Time Within It:
Permian Mesozoic Era Lasted: 245 mya- 66 mya Cenozoic Lasted: 66 mya- to the present Glossary uniformitarianism- states that the same processes of geology that operate today also operated in the past
Law of Superposition- used to determine relative age of sedimentary rock layers
relative age- the age of a rock compared to other rocks' age
absolute age- the number of years since a rock has been formed
index fossil- used to tell the age of rock layers in a sequence
continental drift- the slow movement of the Earth's plates in different directions
geologic time scale- record showing past life forms and geologic events in Earth's history
invertebrate- organisms without a backbone
vertebrate- organisms with a backbone
mass extinction- when a vast amount of different organisms and life forms become extinct at the same time Bacteria, Fungi, Algae, and Animals Bacteria Early Life Bacteria: formed 3.5 billion years ago within the seas

Algae and Fungi: appeared 1 billion years ago

Animals: began to appear aprox. 600 million years ago Fungi Algae Animals Photosynthesis In Precambrian Animals When it began: 2.5 billion years ago

Photosynthetic early organism: cyanobacteria

once called blue-green algae
they are still alive today and barely have evolved Fossil Precambrian Time Setting Thanks For Watching! Lake containing cyanobacteria What the Precambrian Period May Have Looked Like What the Paleozoic Era May Have Looked Like Paleozoic Era Cambrian Lasted: 541 mya to 484.4 mya Atmosphere:
warm and stable
environment triggers
animal diversity explosion

520 mya
impacted: reef builder pop. and
shallow water organisms Plant/ Animal Life Included:
Animals- Coelenterates, protozoa, poriferans, molluscans, worms, echinoderms, trilobites, trilobitomorphs, achaocyathids, and brachiopods.

Plants- algae Algae Protozoa Worms Ordovician Lasted: 485.4 to 443.4 mya Climate: warm and wet Major event: When Gondwana (super continent) moved up to its polar position, glaciers formed on Africa and this was the start of a 20 million year ice age; endangering sea life Animal/ Plant Life Animals: sponges, jawless fish, millipedes,
blastoids, bryozoans, corals, crinoids, brachiopods, snails, clams, and cephalopods Plants: coral reefs, red and green algae Millipedes Blastoids Brachiopods Silurian Lasted: 438 mya - 408 mya Atmosphere/ climate:
similar to Cambrian and Ordovician Plants/ Animals Animals: Jawed fish, arachnids, eurypterids
plants: land plants Land Plants Arachnids (spiders) Devonian Lasted: 408 mya- 360 mya Major events: amphibians
begin to evolve; various fish
appear Animal/ Plant Life Animals: sharks, lung fish, bony fish

Plants: Devonian forest Devonian Forest Bony Fish Carboniferous Lasted: 360 mya- 286 mya Major Events: Tropical forests are widespread
across earth Animal/ Plant Life Animals: cockroach, dragonfly, amphibians

Plants: Coal forest Coal Forest Dragonfly Permian Lasted: 286 mya- 245 mya Major events: By the end of Permian, a majority of the amphibian and sea creature population becomes extinct Animal/ Plant Life Animals: Dimetrodon, Dicynodon

Plants: Conifer (seeds also become more common) Dimetrodon Conifer Included:
Cretaceous Triassic Lasted: 245- 208 mya
Major events: dinosaurs first evolve Animal/ Plant Life Animals: early mammals, Coelophysis Plants: cycad Cycad Coelophysis Jurassic Lasted: 208 mya- 144 mya Major events: Dinosaurs are found everywhere; mammals are now common; first birds Animal/ Plant Life Animals: Morganucodon, Diplodocus, Archaeopteryx Plants: club mosses, Ginkgophytes, ferns, and seed ferns Ginkgophytes Diplodocus The Paleozoic Era ended with a
mass extinction. This extinction, also
known as the Permian Extinction, wiped
out many organism populations. Approximately
90% of the marine sea life died out. Cretaceous Lasted: 144 mya-66 mya Major events: by the end of the period a mass extinction occurs. This causes the extinction of dinosaurs and other organisms. Animal/ Plant Life Animals: Triceratops, Tyrannosaurus Rex, and Creodont Plants: Magnolia Magnolia Tyrannosaurus Rex At the end of the Mesozoic Era there was
another mass extinction called the Cretaceous- Tertiary. In this catastrophic event, a large object from space hit Earth, making dinosaurs and other organisms of that time period extinct. Climate:
warm in Tertiary
varied in Quaternary "Age of Mammals" Tertiary Lasted: 66 mya- 1.8 mya Major events: grass appears; flowering plants become common; monkeys and apes appear Animal/ Plant Life Animals: Uintatherium, Plesiadapis, Hyracotherium Plants: Grass, flowering plants Uintatherium Grass Quarternary Lasted: 1.8 mya- to the present Major events: humans appear, many large mammals become extinct Animal/ Plant Life Animals: Saber- Toothed Cat, Megatherium, Homo Sapiens Plants: flowering plants, grass, etc. Homo Sapiens Flowering Plants
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