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Chapter 13 TheRenaissance 1420-1600
Transcript of Chapter 13 TheRenaissance 1420-1600
The Renaissance and High Renaissance
1420 - 1600
The following collection of images demonstrates the wide popularity of the story & image of David and Goliath in 15th century Florentine art. It is well known that David was a symbol of the Florentine Republic, which like the Old Testament character stood up to its rivals.
Giovanni di Bicci Medici
Cosimo di il Vecchio Medici
In the 15th century, the leading families of Florence decided they needed a strong person in charge to lead them against the growing threat of rival cities. They chose Cosimo de Medici then a wealthy banker to take control of the government. Cosimo maintained the appearance of a republican government but he appointed his relatives and people he could control to important positions. When Cosimo died in 1464, his son and grandson continued his policies. The Medici's maintained control by exiling people who disagreed with them and encouraging other Italian cities to form alliances with Florence.
The Medici family of Florence can be traced back to the end of the 12th century.
They were part of the patrician class, not the nobility, and through much of their family history they were seen as friends of the common people.
Through banking and commerce, the family acquired great wealth in the 13th century and along with wealth came political influence.
Through political influence, a member of the family was chosen to serve as the standard bearer (high ceremonial office) of Florence.
In the 14th century, the family's wealth and political influence increased until revolt.
Salvestro de' Medici led the common people in a revolt in Florence and although he had many followers, Salvestro, the de facto dictator of the city, led a brutal regime which led to his downfall and subsequent banishment in 1382.
The family's fortune then fell until it was restored by Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici (1360-1429), who made the Medici's the wealthiest family in Italy, perhaps Europe. The family's political influence again increased.
Lorenzo di Medici
When Cosimo died in 1464, his son and grandson continued his policies. The best known of the Medici' s was Cosimo’s grandson, Lorenzo, who was known as “Lorenzo the Magnificent”. Lorenzo was not only a shrewd banker and clever politician but a scholar and poet. Under Lorenzo’s leadership, Florence became one of the most prosperous cities in Italy, as well as an important center of the Renaissance.
to an IMPORTANT MOVEMENT
...and it was Lorenzo who had a connection with the artist Donatello...among others
David with the Head of Goliath
Date: ca. 1476
Dates for the work vary from the 1430s to the 1460s.
It is recorded as the centerpiece of the courtyard during the wedding festivities of the son in 1469.
Some have argued that it was commissioned by Cosimo de' Medici in the 1430's to be the centerpiece of the courtyard of the older Medici villa at Via Larga.
Probably the most famous example of fifteenth-century sculpture is the bronze David by Donatello.
The story of David has been a popular subject and theme of artists throughout the years
Italian artist, Andrea del Verrocchio
was an early Renaissance painter, sculptor, and teacher. His David, done in Bronze,
completed in the early 1470s, is in the Museo Nazionale in Florence, Italy.
As you can see from Donatello's sculpture of
the study of human anatomy was enormously important.
For Renaissance artists, they continued art where the ancient Greeks and Romans had left off. Once again, as in classical antiquity (
ancient Greece and Rome)
the human figure was considered beautiful
Remember that in the Middle Ages, there was
interest in the human body, which was seen as only a temporary vessel for the soul.
The body was therefore not important at all. If anything, the body was seen as sinful, as the cause of temptation. In the Old Testament, after Adam and Eve eat the apple from the tree of knowledge, they realize that they are naked and cover themselves.
So nakedness, and the body generally in the Middle Ages is associated in with temptation and sin and the FALL of man.
The best way to learn human anatomy is not just to look at the outside of the body but to study the insides (ick)!
Dissections of the human body performed in the Renaissance
were secretive & rare because of church prohibitions.
But...artists performed dissections because they were anxious to learn about the body and gain knowledge which would allow them to show the body in many different positions.
In the Renaissance, the human body was the most beautiful thing to paint and considered a reflection of God.
The twisted torso, furrowed forehead, and granite grimace of Bernini's "David" is symptomatic of the interest in dynamic movement and emotion.
his armor and a disguised harp
Bernini, David. 1623
marble 5' 7"
Originally done for the Florence Cathedral, it became so admired that the Florentine city council placed it on the city's principal square. Both Verrochio's and Donatello's, Davids are depicted standing over Goliath's severed head. Michelangelo has depicted David before the battle. David is tense, but not physically... mentally.
Here, Michaelangelo is demonstrating one of the Renaissance's basic ideals....
Man's Intellectual Thought!
The slingshot he carries over his shoulder is almost invisible emphasizing that David's victory was one of cleverness, not sheer force.
Marble 1501-1504 17'
Equestrian monument at Gattamelata
This work became the prototype for honoring military heroes. This symbolizes the Renaissance respect for military commanders. Usually only heads of state would have received such honor.
The horse's hoof rests on an orb, the ancient symbol for control over the earth. And although Gattamelata had died in his seventies, Donatello idealizes the general at the height of his powers.
This was the first equestrian statue to be cast since Roman time.
The statue took 10 years to complete.
Donatello also designed the pedestal, which is about twice as high as the bronze statue. At the top are two reliefs and below them are false doors, which symbolize doors to the underworld. This gives the monument a sense of a tomb.
What's so special about a door?
Lorenzo Ghiberti created it!
Ghiberti's "Gates of Paradise" have large panels and use a square format to accommodate several scenes relating to the Old Testament. These doors depict events from the Creation to the reign of Solomon.
Executed in the lost wax technique, these doors have figures nearly in the round with parts of their bodies extended from the background as well as details in very shallow relief. Deep space is convincing through one-point linear perspective, aerial or atmospheric perspective, and the receding sizes of figures as they recede in the distance.
The Gates of Paradise
contains images and scenes from 10 books of the Old Testament.
Genesis Cain and Abel
The High Renaissance 1500-1600
During the 16th century, Humanism (for our purposes...the historical revival of Classical culture, notably during the Renaissance) gave way to the spirit of "new inquiry
pushing the limits of questioning by artists, writers and thinkers. Actually, artists became sought after celebrities...as art began to be seen as an intellectual activity instead of just a technical skill.
During this time, travel in Europe was becoming easier and safer so artists were going mobile!
Styles and techniques were less regional and more international
artists began to change materials...frescos were replaced by oil on canvas because oil paintings were easy to transport and could be installed anywhere.
The Fabulous Four
The main four artists who emerge during the "High" Renaissance were Leonardo, Raphael, Michelangelo and Titian
...but don't forget Botticelli
Date: ca. 1484
In Alessandro Botticelli’s “Birth of Venus” (1485), the goddess Venus [or Aphrodite as she is known in Greek mythology] emerges from the sea upon a shell in accordance with the myth that explains her birth. Her shell is pushed to the shore from the winds produced by the Zephyr wind-gods amid a shower of roses. As the goddess is about to step on the shore, one of the Nymphs reaches out to cover her with a purple cloak. This painting is among the most treasured masterpieces of the Renaissance.
In this painting, Venus is shown as a beautiful and chaste goddess. A symbol of the coming spring.
At this time in Renaissance history, when almost all art was of Christian theme, nude women are not often depicted and when they were they symbolized sinful lust. Most paintings of women during the Middle Ages symbolized the Virgin Mary, showing her in a demure appearance with an angelic smile and covered head.
So why did Botticelli paint the beautiful goddess, not only an obvious symbol of pagan mythology but also as a nude?
Sandro Botticelli (1444-1510), a master of Renaissance art, busy doing portraits, mythological themes, and religious works for the Medici family, had varied sources of inspiration for this painting. Perhaps he was inspired to create his Venus by his contemporaries who were rediscovering ancient Greek art and the ancient Greek ideals of beauty. For instance, Leone Battista Alberti, a man often viewed as a model "Renaissance man," writes about his fascination with an ancient Venus statue discovered under the Brunelleschi Villa. He also recommends the mathematical models of human form and the Classical ideals of perfection and motion. To Alberti, motion symbolizes energy. Many aspects of Botticelli’s Venus are in motion: the leaves of the orange trees in the background, ringlets of hair being blown about by the Zephyrs, roses sprinkled throughout the atmosphere, the waves tossing gently, and the cloaks and drapery of the figures blown and lifted by the breeze. Further, the pose of Botticelli's Venus is reminiscent of the Venus de Medici, a marble sculpture and gem inscription from Classical antiquity .
But Botticelli was a craftsman in his own right. His “Venus” is the first large-scale canvas created in Renaissance Florence . He experimented with and understood painting technique.
He prepared his own tempera pigments with very little fat and covered them with a layer of pure egg white in a process unusual for his time. He had fantastic results. His painting resembles a fresco in its freshness and brightness. It is preserved exceptionally well: the painting today remains firm and elastic with very little cracks.
Leonardo da Vinci
The Last Supper located in the Refectory of the Monastery of Santa Maria
The Last Supper is Leonardo's visual interpretation of an event chronicled in all four of the Gospels (books in the Christian New Testament). It was the first celebration of the Eucharist, a ritual still performed.
Specifically, Last Supper depicts the next few seconds in this story after Christ explains that one disciple would betray him before sunrise and all twelve have reacted to the news with different degrees of horror, anger and shock.
Slightly larger than a piece of paper....13 x 9
Leonardo is equating the dimensions of the "ideal male figure" with geometric shapes... i.e. square and circle
He is experimentating with mathmatics and showing his love for proportion.
proportion is the quotient obtained when the magnitude of a part is divided by the magnitude of the whole: parts = the whole
...here is an example
Traditional rules of proportion show the face divided into six equal squares, two by three. The upper horizontal division is roughly at the 'third eye' level mid-forehead, the lower at the base of the nose. The eyes sit on the horizontal centre, the mouth on the centre of the lower third.
Leonardo, always the inventor, tried using new materials for Last Supper. Instead of using tempera on wet plaster (the preferred method of fresco painting and one which had worked successfully for centuries), he thought he'd try using dry plaster called intonaco. His experiment resulted in a more varied palette which was Leonardo's intent. What he hadn't taken into account (because, who knew?) was that this method wasn't at all durable. The painted plaster began to flake off the wall almost immediately and people have been attempting to restore it ever since.
What about Leonardo's technique...in other words... Why is the paint falling off the wall???
This portrait was painted in Florence between 1503 and 1506.
It is thought to be of Lisa Gherardini, wife of a Florentine cloth merchant.
However, Leonardo seems to have taken the completed portrait to France rather than giving it to the person who commissioned it. It was eventually returned to Italy by a student of Leonardo's.
The portrait may have been painted to mark one of two events - either when the couple bought their own house in 1503 or when their second son was born in December 1502 after the death of a daughter in 1499. The delicate dark veil that covers Mona Lisa's hair is sometimes considered a mourning veil.
In fact, such veils were commonly worn as a mark of virtue.
Her clothing is unremarkable. Neither the yellow sleeves of her gown nor the scarf delicately draped round her shoulders are signs of aristocratic status.
A new artistic formula
The Mona Lisa is the earliest Italian portrait to focus so closely on the sitter in a half-length portrait. The painting is generous enough in its dimensions to include the arms and hands without them touching the frame.
Given how famous The Mona Lisa has become
it was inevitable that other artist's would use it as their subject matter.
1968 (20th century)
After seeing Michelangelo's work someone once said...
"He saw the angel in the marble and carved until he set him free."
A pieta is a painting or sculpture of the Virgin Mary mourning over Jesus Christ’s dead body” ... Mary with Jesus Christ’s body
Michelangelo sculpted the Rome Pieta when he was 24 years old, in 1499. This is one of the most famous pieces of sculpture in the world, and bears the signature of Michelangelo. It must be noted that Michelangelo has not signed any other of his works.
The statue was made for the French Cardinal's Bilhere's funeral monument, but was moved to its current location, the first chapel on the right as one enters the basilica, in the 18th century.
The style of the sculpture is typical of High Renaissance. Beauty to the extreme and shining marble surfaces.
The overall feeling from the sculpture is serenity, and the controlled emotion. It is so realistic that we think the dead Christ will wake up anuy moment, so we are waiting for this to happen, or that Death is inevitable and we must find a way to cope with it.
In 1972, a Hungarian-born man attacked Michelangelo's Pieta at the Vatican, breaking off the left arm and disfiguring the face of the Madonna.
this is the postcard version...notice the background color
Michelangelo's work for Pope Julius
Michelangelo abandoned this Florentine commission when Pope Julius II summoned him to Rome to design his tomb. What should have been the most prestigious commission of his career, a free-standing tomb with some 40 figures, to be located in St. Peter's, became, in Michelangelo's own words, the 'tragedy of the tomb'. Julius died in 1513, the contract was redrawn several times over the following years with ever-diminishing funding, other demands were made on Michelangelo by successive popes, and the project was finally cobbled together in 1545, a shadow of its original conception, with much help from assistants. The tomb is now principally famous for the colossal figure of Moses (c 1515), and the two slave figures; the Dying Slave and the Rebellious Slave.
The four unfinished slaves reveal eloquently Michelangelo's sculptural process: the figure would be outlined on the front of the marble block and then Michelangelo would work steadily inwards from one side.
In his own words 'liberating the figure imprisoned in the marble'.
Michelangelo's Sculptures 9:41
Michelangelo's unfinished Atlas
Michelangelo's unfinished slave
Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel
Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel, overview
The Sistine Chapel was commissioned in 1475 by Pope Sixtus IV, from whom it derives its name. It was designed to be, and still is, the pope's chapel and the site of papal elections. Sixtus was determined that Rome should be rebuilt to its former glory and had embarked on a vigorous campaign to get the job done.
That such splendor would
(a) add luster to his name
(b) serve to supercede anything that Pope Alexander VI had accomplished were not unimportant.
The Sistine Chapel was consecrated and dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin on August 15, 1483.
Michelangelo was called away from his work on the pope's own tomb and was not happy about the change. He had always insisted he was a sculptor and was contemptuous of fresco painting. The results are glorious depictions of human bodies that could only be created by a sculptor and the project Michelangelo hated so much (at least at first) ironically became his most well-known work.
the main panels down the center depict scenes from the Book of Genesis, from the Creation, to the Fall, to shortly after Noah's deluge.
Adjacent to each of these scenes, on either side, are immense portraits of prophets and sibyls who foretold the coming of the Messiah.
Along the bottoms of these run spandrels and lunettes containing the ancestors of Jesus and stories of tragedy in ancient Israel. Scattered throughout are smaller figures, cherubs and ignudi (nudes). All told there are more than 300 painted figures on the ceiling.
Did Michelangelo Really Paint Lying on His Back?
No. Charlton Heston did in the movie, but the real Michelangelo didn't lay on his back to paint the ceiling. He conceived and had constructed a unique scaffolding system. It was sturdy enough to hold workers and materials but began high up the walls of the chapel in order that Mass might still be celebrated below.
Titian was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian school of the Italian Renaissance.
Recognized by his contemporaries as "The Sun Amidst Small Stars"
Titian was one of the most versatile of Italian painters, equally adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, and mythological and religious subjects. His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art.
Last but not least....
Catherine di Medici
Video: Tiziano Vecellio Titian Paintings 6:18
Titian Venus of Urbino
Known by his first name alone, Raphael was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance who was celebrated for the perfection and grace of his paintings and drawings. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.
Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop, and despite his death at thirty-seven, a large body of his work remains. Many of his works are found in the Apostolic Palace of The Vatican, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central and the largest works of his career. After his early years in Rome, much of his work was designed by him and executed largely by the workshop from his drawings with considerable loss of quality. He was extremely influential in his lifetime though outside Rome his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking. After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo was more widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest models.
School of Athens
Virtual Art Glasses example using the painting School of Athens
Did you have to be Italian to have an important role in the Renaissance?
No...many artists in Germany, France, England, Spain and Denmark were involved in what is known as
the Northern Renaissance...
Albrecht Dürer was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg. His prints established his reputation across Europe when he was still in his twenties and he has been conventionally regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance ever since. His well-known works include the Apocalypse woodcuts, Knight, Death, and the Devil (1513), Saint Jerome in his Study (1514) and Melencolia I (1514), which has been the subject of extensive analysis and interpretation. His watercolours mark him as one of the first European landscape artists, while his ambitious woodcuts revolutionized the potential of that medium. Dürer's introduction of classical motifs into Northern art, through his knowledge of Italian artists and German humanists have secured his reputation as one of the most important figures of the Northern Renaissance. This is reinforced by his theoretical treatise which involve principles of mathematics, perspective and ideal proportions.
Mannerism: comes from the Italian Maniera which suggests intellectually intricate subjects, highly skilled techniques and art concerned with beauty for beauty's sake.
characteristics which describe mannerism are extraordinary virtuosity, sophisticated, elegant compositions and fearless manipulations or distortions.
Artist created irrational spatial effects and figures with elongated proportions, exaggerated poses and enigmatic gestures and expressions.
Durer. St. Jerome in his study
The Medici Family- Godfathers of the Renaissance
Feudalism was the primary political system of the Middle Ages. The system came about, for the most part, during his reign of England's, King William.
King Wiliam had two major woes: he couldn't keep the people from rebelling and he couldn't take care of all the land. In order to solve these problems, William created the FEUDAL SYSTEM, in which he would give out sections of land, called fiefs, to his most important nobles, barons, and bishops in exchange for their services and their loyalty.
Peasants, or “serfs” were considered to be the lowest of the lower class, and rather than being given land in exchange for loyalty, they were forced to work the land, and the Lord of that land would offer them protection. ( Who does this sound like? )
In addition to launching feudalism, the early Middle Ages also spawned the turning of man against women and perpetuated the concept of women as "the instrument of evil". However, due to the importance of the worship of The Virgin Mary, the later middle ages greatly improved women's status in the eyes of medieval men. The Virgin Mary was considered to be the ideal woman due to her purity and strength, and she soon reached "idol" status. This rampant worship of the Virgin Mary led to another phase of medieval life in which a man preserved a chaste devotion to a Lady. This was the time in which the classic code of chivalry came into existence. Chivalry tended to humanize feudalism. Within this written code, it is stated that knights must "exhibit manners, be polite and attentive, respectful of host, authority, honour and woman". This was quite a change from the earlier attitude of woman as the embodiment of evil.
The evolution of the merchant class, or the so-called "rise of the cities" was another change that occurred in the latter half of the Middle Ages. This dynamic marked the end of the feudal system, which in turn, made the lands that came with a bride at marriage valuable commodities. In addition, any woman with the skills and knowledge to perform a "work-at-home" trade such as brewing or weaving was considered valuable. These actions helped the economy drastically, bringing about not only increased wealth but better times and, subsequently a surge in religious worship and gratitude. All of these factors greatly contributed to the demand for bigger and better churches, which resulted in the design and construction of some beautiful Gothic cathedrals. The windows were composed of beautiful stained glass depictions of Bible stories, the decor was extravagant and the architectural brilliance was staggering.
Under the feudal system, everyone but the king had a ruling lord above him and
everyone owed loyalty and service to him....in exchange for land and protection.
The brilliance of this system is that it "killed two birds with one stone", solving both of the king's problems because he now had control over the people and the land.
Not a bad idea...if you can get everyone to agree... all this eluded William. He could not see that he was primarily the only one to benefit from this oppressive system, and that whenever only one person benefits at the expense of thousands of other people, something is eventually going to have to “give”.
William threw diplomacy and public relations out the window in order to devise a quick-fix to rectify his own failures and inability to properly rule his country.
Feudalism’s biased hierarchy of authority, rights, and power extended from the monarch downwards, creating an intricate network of obligatory situations that infringed on almost every basic human right. Despite its many shortcomings, Feudalism was backed by a complex legal system and supported by the Christian church. However, with the growth of commerce and industry, feudalism gradually gave way to the class system as the dominant form of social ranking
Now might be a good time to talk about positive and negative space......
back to casting...
Simple Mold Making
Description of The Last Supper
The Arnolfini Portrait -by Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck or Johannes de Eyck was a Flemish painter active in Bruges and considered one of the best Northern European painters of the 15th century.
On the plus side, artists had gained lots of technical knowledge during the Renaissance (such as the use of oil paints and perspective) which would never again be lost to a "dark" age.
Another new development at this time was rudimentary archaeology. The Mannerist artists now had actual works from antiquity to study. No longer did they need to use their respective imagination when it came to Classical stylization.
That said, they (the Mannerist artists) almost seemed determined to use their powers for evil. Where High Renaissance art was natural, graceful, balanced and harmonious, the art of Mannerism was quite different. While technically masterful, Mannerist compositions were full of clashing colors, disquieting figures with abnormally elongated limbs, (often torturous-looking) emotion and bizarre themes that combined Classicism, Christianity and mythology.
The nude, which had been rediscovered during the Early Renaissance, was still present. Leaving compositional instability out of the picture (pun intended), no human could have maintained positions such as those depicted.
Landscapes suffered a similar fate. If the sky in any given scene wasn't a menacing color, it was filled with flying animals, malevolent putti, Grecian columns or some other unnecessary busy-ness. Or all of the above.
Pieter Bruegel not only portrays the average man but also the battle of the times between the secular population and the church. One side of the painting shows people indulging in the excesses of Carnival while the other shows the church with its followers during the period of Lent, the two scenes come together with a joust representing the ongoing battle of the reformation.
The Fight Between Carnival and Lent
YouTube- Birth of a Dynasty
Queen of France
Born into Europe's famous Medici family, Catherine became Queen of France in 1547, having married the future Henry II in 1533. Henry died in 1559 and Catherine ruled as regent until 1559. This was an era of intense religious strife and despite trying to follow moderate policies, Catherine became associated with, even blamed for, the Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day in 1572.
the heroic moment
Looking across the picture from left to right: 4 groups of 3 with Christ in the Center
Bartholomew, James Minor and Andrew form a group of three. All are aghast, Andrew to the point of holding his hands up in a "stop!" gesture.
Judas, Peter and John form the next group of three. Judas, you will note, has his face in shadow and is clutching a small bag (of silver perhaps). Peter is visibly angry and a feminine-looking John seems about to swoon.
Christ is the calm in the midst of the storm.
Thomas, James Major and Philip are next. Thomas is clearly agitated, James Major stunned and Philip seems to be seeking clarification.
Matthew, Thaddeus and Simon comprise the last group of three figures. It appears that, when a situation turns ugly, Simon is the "go to" guy for explanations.
Michelangelo expresses David's heroic nature
each very different!
The Last Supper is one of the most famous examples of One Point Perspective in art.
Leonardo da Vinci. Mona Lisa 1503-1506. Oil on panel
Notice the high relief
of this portrait...he is coming
out of the door!
Renaissance Art History by historyofpainters.com
The Most Famous Portrait in the World...
The Mona Lisa
Thank you for your attention!
King Charles IX of France, under the sway of his mother, Catherine de Medici, orders the assassination of Huguenot Protestant leaders in Paris, setting off an orgy of killing that results in the massacre of tens of thousands of Huguenots all across France.
If the horse is rearing (both front legs in the air), the rider died in battle.
One front leg up means the rider was wounded in battle or died of battle wounds.
If all four hooves are on the ground, the rider died outside battle.
The Ghent Altarpiece
The Northern Renaissance
Renaissance & Baroque
In art, we call this style
Notice Goliath's head!
Yes, I think so...