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Age of Enlightenment

Information to provide students with content knowledge on the Age of Enlightenment in Europe
by

Douglas Ramage

on 4 September 2013

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Transcript of Age of Enlightenment

Life Before the Enlightenment Government
Church
Life most nations in Europe were monarchies
Kings had total power
Nobles & Lords, land owners
controlled most of the wealth Catholic Church in Europe
owned land, held great wealth
powerful & influential
very strict interpretation of the Bible most people poor peasants
lived in rural areas
life difficult, short
uneducated, illiterate
paid high taxes to landowners, church & monarch
no rights, no freedoms The Renaissance 1300-1600
rebirth of knowledge & learning
art & science
rediscover ancient ideas
question beliefs & authority The Reformation 1517: Martin Luther begins Protestant Reformation
Challenge to Catholic Church's authority
Church divides
People question religious beliefs & doctrine Scientific Revolution Ancient Beliefs facts based on ancient teachings & Church/Bible
Ancient Greeks, Romans, Aristotle, Socrates
Science had to agree with the Bible
Science based on simple observations
accepted as fact, not challenged Geocentric Theory Geo = Earth
believed Earth was the center of the Universe
agreed with the Bible & Church teachings
agreed with Ancient scientists The Printing Press Chinese block printing arrived in Europe 1200s
Characters carved into wood
Process is slow & expensive Books in Europe few available
copied by hand
extremely expensive
written in Latin
misinformation, not accurate
few people owned books, Church, monarchs, Nobles, Scholars
Literacy extremely low Johann Gutenberg Germany, 1440s
trained as a goldsmith, gem cutter & metallurgist
experiments with the idea of moveable type using metals
creates 290 characters made in tin
experiments with ink & paper
uses a wine press to print Gutenberg Bible
1455 Impact of the Printing Press printing spreads through Europe
production increases
cost of books drops
able to print in native languages
language becomes standardized
literacy increases, education increases
information spreads quickly
people begin to question
by 1500 close to 2,500 cities had a press Click to view animation of Gutenberg's Printing Press Exploration Europeans began to explore the world
needed better maps
study of astronomy increases
discover new people, plants, animals
What do we really know of the world? Copernicus 1500: Nicolaus Copernicus
Polish astronomer
Observes the planets, stars. moon for 25 years
Concludes that the Sun is the center of the Universe
Heliocentric Theory (Sun = helio)
Afraid to publish his theories
1543: publishes "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies"
Theory is rejected by most Heliocentric Model According to Giovanni Tolsani in 1546, a member of the Dominican Order, “almost all the hypotheses of this author Copernicus contain something false” and he “seems unfamiliar with Holy Scripture since he contradicts some of its principles.” Revolutions was not placed on the Index of Prohibited Books until 1616, seventy-three years after it was first published. A censored version with some sections changed or omitted was released four years after it was prohibited. It is possible that Revolutions was not banned immediately because of its hypothetical nature and weak arguments. However, Tolsani also wrote, a papal authority “had planned to condemn his [Copernicus'] book. But, prevented at first by illness, then by death, he could not carry out this [plan].” After his death, the Church was heavily involved in the Council of Trent during the years 1545 to 1563 and other matters. Copernicus' work inspired others Tycho Brahe: Danish astronomer
Observations supported Copernicus Johannes Kepler: used math & measured planetary movements, supported Copernicus' theory of a Sun centered Universe Galileo Galilei Italian astronomer
1609: builds his own telescope based on a description of a Dutch telescope
1610: publishes "Starry Messenger"
Jupiter has 4 moons
Moon has craters
Sun has spots Galileo had proved Copernicus correct
Church places his books on the list of banned books
Church warns Galileo to stop teaching heliocentric theory
1632: "Dialogue Concerning Two Chief World Systems", supports Copernicus
Catholic Church outraged, Galileo summoned to Rome On Trial 1633: Galileo interrogated by the Church
Charged with heresy
Threatened with torture & possible death
Galileo chooses to recant, denies his beliefs and those of Copernicus
Placed under house arrest by the Church Galileo's Recantation admits he was wrong
admits Copernicus was wrong
promises never to teach, speak or write about the heliocentric theory
forbidden to publish any more books
held under house arrest till his death in 1642 Big Picture Enlightenment ideas challenged traditional beliefs
Forced people to reexamine the world
provide people with evidence & facts
want to make the world more logical
use logic and science to improve society Sir Francis Bacon importance of experimentation
reject what can not be proven
empiricism, scientific method Rene Descartes reject assumptions
use math to prove all things
developed analytical geometry
"I think therefore I am" Sir Isaac Newton developed the law of gravity
explained the motion of the Universe
worked in optics & calculus Andreas Vesalius studied human anatomy
dissected bodies
doctors had studied pigs
advanced the study of anatomy and surgical science Edward Jenner developed a vaccine for smallpox
experimented with a mild form of cowpox
developed method for preventing diseases Robert Boyle father of modern chemistry
rejected Aristotle's idea that matter was made up of 4 elements: Earth, Fire, Air Water
matter is made up of smaller particles joined together John Locke man had natural rights
"Life, Liberty & Property"
believed in democracy & self-government
Government's power came from the people
People have the right to overthrow a government that doesn't protect their rights
Social Contract Voltaire believed in tolerance
supported freedom of speech
supported freedom of religion Baron de Montesquieu power of government should be divided
Monarchs held all of the power
create separate branches each with their own power
"Power should be a check to power" Jean Jacques Rousseau "Man is born free but everywhere he is in chains"
Civilization corrupted man
direct democracy: everyone has a vote on every issue
Social contract: agreement between all peoples to create a government Cesare Beccaria laws should help maintain peace not avenge crimes
abolish torture & death
make sentences fair & equal, punishment should fit the crime
seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people Mary Wollstonecraft women's rights issues
access to education
right to gain a divorce
right to own property & vote Legacy of the
Enlightenment Belief in Progress advancement of knowledge
human reason can solve problems
reform/change society
end slavery, promote equality
democracy Secularism Science not the Church should explain the world
end superstition and rely on facts
promote tolerance of all religions/beliefs Importance of
the Individual man can solve his own problems
Monarch & Church no longer needed
man can govern himself through reason & logic French Revolution American Revolution Declaration of Independence The Constitution Bill of Rights
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