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Young Children and the Benefit of Music

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Samantha Blackman

on 10 December 2014

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Transcript of Young Children and the Benefit of Music

Music Perception
Music Education and Programs
Has been included in child education since the nineteenth century when it was imported from Europe.
National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)
Gymboree and Zumbini.
Effects of Music therapy on premature infants
Studies have shown a positive correlation between premature infants listening to live music and many of their psychological responses.
Benefits of Music
Singing to Infants
Most commons types of songs sung by parents to their infants are play-songs and lullabies
Song lyrics repeat
Mothers are more inclined to sing to their babies than fathers.
Parents use different kinds of music and songs to influence their infants behavior and states of arousal.
Singing initiates a fun way of learning that can lead to various approaches to music education for young children.
Young Children and the Benefits of Music
Before birth a fetus can hear their mother's voice and the rhythmic soundtrack of their mothers heartbeat
Infants as young as 6 months are able to recognize recently heard melodies, despite changes in pitch or tempo.
At 12 months infants can distinguish between features that belong in their own culture's music versus features that do not belong.
Singing lullabies to the infant can enhance the bonding experience for the caregiver, which can decrease stress for the premature infant.
Live music can enhance quiet alert and sleep states, sucking response, and oxygen saturation in premature infants.

Response to music
Infants prefer:
"infant directed" singing
songs with many repetitions, higher pitches, slower tempos, and in a loving tone of voice
Babies can discriminate pitch and tempo
Infants are better than adults at detecting dissonance
Babies can also remember sounds they heard in the womb during the last few months of pregnancy
More sensitivity to pitch structure in music, better early communication skills (McMaster, 2012)
Helps increase IQ, "exercise" the brain, improve spatial-temporal skills, and improve test scores. (Brown, 2012)
More research is needed!
Other Benefits of Music
Helps boost self-esteem
Better understanding in math
Emotionally healthier
Improves reasoning in preschool children
Better reading proficiency
Music Therapy and Autism
Music therapy has been shown to help improve peer interaction and play with others

It also significantly increased self-esteem, decreased anxiety, and allowed more positive attitudes towards peers (Hillier et al., 2012)

The therapy resulted in better communication, social skills, sensory issues, behavior, cognition, perceptual/motor skills, and self-reliance or self-determination
So How Does Music Therapy Work?
By using instruments or own voice it creates a context in which child feels confident and comfortable to express him or herself
Brown, L. L. (2012). The benefits of music education. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/parents/education/music-arts/the-benefits-of-music-education/
Cornhill, J. L., Benefits of music therapy for individuals with autism. Montcalm School for Boys and Girls. Retrieved from http://montcalmschool.org/blog/benefits-music-therapy/
Fiegl, A. (2013). The emotional baby: How infants respond to music. National Geographic, Retrieved from: http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2013/11/12/the-emotional-baby-how-infants-respond-to-music/
Foundation For Universal Music Literacy Research Materials. How music can dramatically affect your child’s development and life-time success. Retrieved from http://www.allegrorainbow.com/media/pdfs/ChildrenandMusicResearch.pdf
Hillier, A. J., Greher, G., Poto, N., & Dougherty, M. (2011). Positive outcomes following participation in a music intervention for adolescents and young adults on the autism spectrum. Psychology of Music, 0305735610386837.
Kaplan, R. (2012). Music therapy for individuals with autism. Huffington Post, Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ronna-kaplan-ma/music-therapy-autism_b_2007561.htm
Kern, P., & Aldridge, D. (2006). Using embedded music therapy interventions to support outdoor play of young children with autism in an inclusive community-based child care program. Journal of Music Therapy, 43(4), 270-294.
Rudy, L. J. (2014). Music therapy for autism. About Health, Retrieved from http://autism.about.com/od/autismtherapy101/a/musictherapy.htm
Trainer, L. (2012). Babies' brains benefit from music lessons, researchers find. McMaster University. Retrieved from http://www.mcmaster.ca/opr/html/opr/media/main/NewsReleases/Babiesbrainsbenefitfrommusiclessonsresearchersfind.htm

What is music therapy?
Well-established professional health discipline that uses music as therapeutic stimulus to achieve non-musical treatment goals
Music Therapy
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