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Computer-Assisted Language Learning
Transcript of Computer-Assisted Language Learning
2000 B.A. in Translation & Interpretation 2001 B.Phil. in TESOL 2002 M.A. in Multimedia for TESOL
University of Newcastle upon Tyne 2007 Ph.D. in Education & Applied Linguistic
University of Newcastle upon Tyne Work Experience 2003
Teaching assistant in Stockfield primary school in the U.K. 2005
Part-time lecturer in Nan-Tai & Leader University 2007
Assistant Professor in Wenzao Ursuline College 2009
Deputy Chair in Wenzao Ursuline College 2005
IH Certification for TESOL
TKT Certification 2003~2006
Wardenship in student accommodation 2007~2008
Editor of “ 全民哈英文互動光碟” 2007~2009
for evaluation of online course design in Wenzao
My Research Study & Interest Computer-Mediated Communication
Second language Acquisition
Writing in the EFL Classroom “Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning foreign languages where the computer and computer-based resources such as the Internet are used to present, reinforce and assess material to be learned. It usually includes a substantial interactive element. It also includes the search for and the investigation of applications in language teaching and learning. Except for self-study software, CALL is meant to supplement face-to-face language instruction, not replace it. CALL has also been known by several other terms such as technology-enhanced language learning (TELL), computer-assisted language instruction (CALI) and computer-aided language learning but the field is the same.” (Wikipedia: 29/4/08)
"the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning” (Levy 1997:1)
What is CALL?
History of Computer Assisted Language Learning
-Behaviouristic: The computer takes the role of tutor, delivering instructional materials to the learner, with limited feedback.
The computer is used for skills practice, but not drill and practice and with a greater degree of student choice, control and interaction. May include:
Using the computer to stimulate discussion, writing or critical thinking, e.g. using simulation programs such as Sim City
Using the computer as a tool, e.g. using word-processors, spellcheckers and grammar checkers
Using word-processing and presentation software
-Integrative: Marked by the introduction of two important innovations: (a) multimedia, (b) the Internet.
How? Learning Theories
-Engeström When? Bax’s ‘Normalisation’ of CALL
“In terms of its historical period and its main features it differs little from Warschauer and Healey's "Behaviourist CALL" … the term "Restricted" is more satisfactory since it allows us to refer not only to a supposed underlying theory of learning but also to the actual software and activity types in use at the time, to the teachers' role, to the feedback offered to students and to other dimensions - all were relatively "restricted", but not all were "behaviourist". The term is more comprehensive, more flexible and therefore more satisfactory as a descriptor. (Bax 2003:20)
more open in terms of feedback given to students, software types and teacher’s role - includes simulations and games.
“refers when the technology becomes invisible, embedded in everyday practice and hence "normalised". To take some commonplace examples, a wristwatch, a pen, shoes, writing - these are all technologies which have become normalised to the extent that we hardly even recognise them as technologies.” (Bax 2003:24) Language acquisition: stage theories Stage 1: The Silent/Receptive or Pre-production Stage:
-up to 500 receptive words
-can understand new words introduced appropriately
-can respond with a range of strategies
(pointing, performing, gesturing; saying "yes" or "no”)
Stage 2: The Early Production Stage
-about 1,000 receptive/active words
-can speak in one- or two-word phrases
-can demonstrate comprehension of new material with
short answers to simple questions
Stage 3: The Speech Emergence Stage
-approximately 3,000 words
-can use short phrases and simple sentences to communicate
-begin to use dialogue and can ask and answer simple questions
-may use longer sentences, but often with errors which hamper
Stage 4: The Intermediate Language Proficiency Stage
-close to 6,000 words
-beginning to make complex statements
-state opinions, ask for clarification, share their thoughts, and
speak at greater length.
Stage 5: The Advanced Language Proficiency Stage:
-some specialized content-area vocabulary
-can participate fully in conversation and discussion, reading
Krashen Computer Assited Language Learning
電 腦 輔 助 外 語 教 學
張 偉 志
Is technology effective? Are there impact studies? How much does the effects of technology make? What are other relative effects? Where is it most effective? The impact of technology -Thinking about impact
Impact on attainment
Impact on education and learning
-Implications for the use of technology in
language learning Comparison of impact
Same measures and different measures
Significance vs effect size
Does it work? vs How well does it work?
-Standardised way of looking at gain scores
-Different methods for calculation
-Experimental group mean - Control mean/S.D.
Effect size of 1.0
= percentile gain of 34, ie. a class ranked
50th in a league table of 100 classes would
move to about 16th
Effect size of 0.5
= percentile gain of 20, ie. move from 50th to
Effect size of 0.1
= percentile gain of 6, ie. move from 50th to
44th How much is the impact? Other effect size 0.2 small =
difference in height between 15-16 year olds
0.5 medium =
difference in height between 14 and 18 year olds
0.8 large =
difference in height between 13 and 18 year olds
Most educational interventions have positive effects
Average effect size is between 0.37 (Sipe and Curlette, 1997) and 0.4 (Hattie, Biggs and Purdie, 1996)
Doing something different makes a positive difference! Interpreting effect sizes in education 1. 04 Thinking skills (CASE Science Education)
0.77 Quality of teaching
0.59 Direct instruction
0.37 Computer assisted instruction
0.15 Web-based learning
0.10Individualised instruction Some effect sizes Where does it work best? Hypermedia
Audio/ visual presentation
Writing (especially quantity) - CMC
Reading (using text-to-speech feedback)
Reading comprehension (cloze/ reciprocal questioning)
Multimedia for contextual support Macro - policy, curriculum and grand theory
Meso - school resourcing, colleagues
Micro - personal beliefs, local context What drives the adoption of technology in education? What technology do we want to see in education? As much as we can afford? Whatever fits with institutional policies? What works in terms of the evidence base? What works for me? -CALL as "the search for and study of applications of the computer in
language teaching and learning” (Levy 1997:1)
-History of stages
-Behaviouristic - Communicative - Integrative (Warschauer)
-Restricted - Open - Integrated (Bax)
-Some learning theories and language learning theories
-Evidence of effectiveness
Of CALL applications
-The importance of technology supporting ‘input’ (Krashen)
Remark Pedagogy not technology makes the difference
Teachers make more difference than technology
The value of theory as practical guidance
Clear choices are needed about why, where and how to integrate technology, if the goal is better learning
So far the evidence of the benefits of technology support for language learning are mixed
It can help, but it won’t automatically Key Message 1. I can never get into the computer room in class time – it’s always being used.
2. Using computers isn’t interactive. My students could do computer work at home.
3. I don’t know anything about technology!
4. My students know so much more about computers than I do.
5. Why use computers anyway? We’ve got a perfectly good course book.
6. I don’t like them, so I don’t see why I should use them in the classroom.
7. I’d like to use computers more, but preparing materials is so time consuming.
Conundrums Classifications of CALL Vocabulary: to illustration, explanation, and practice (pictures, words, sounds)
Grammar: to embeds grammatical structures in discourse, form of recognition, explanation
Reading: to provide opportunity for interaction in reading, links for hints and help, immediate feedback
Writing: to model different type of writing, purpose, level, genre-specific and to experiece process writing
Speaking: to provide choice of accents, speech sounds, recorded speech, simulation, and CMC
Listening: to foster different types of processing (bottom-up focus on vocab, grammar, sound & meaning correspondences, or top-down focus on context and induction of background knowledge
Communication: to create tasks for jigsaw, information-gap, collaborative (or cooperative) practice in different language skills
Language Based Tasked Based Gap-filling exercises: Hotpotato, WIDA, etc.
Multiple-choice exercises: Hotpotato, WIDA, etc.
Tutorial program: CLEF, iWork, etc.
Scramble exercises (word-sequencing): Hotpotato, Camsoft, etc.
Text mazes: Fun with Text, Hotpotato, etc.
Clozes: Hotpotato, Clozewriter (Fun with Text), etc.
Games and adventures: SimCity, GameMaker,etc.
Writing: Word, MyAccess, MyET, etc. Functional Based "School" programs: exercises involving gap-filling, multiple-choice, sequencing, matching, total text reconstruction.
"Office" programs: word-processing, databases, communications (e-mail, chat, videochat) spreadsheets.
"Library" programs: concordancers, dictionaries, encyclopedias, internet.
"Home" programs: adventures, games and simulations, music and photos/ media management
(developed from Hardisty & Windeatt, 1989) Internet designed to exchange information
Explosion of hyperlinked pages of information
Used mainly as an information source
Emphasis on downloading and receiving information Web 1.0 More provisional and more personal information
-MySpace / Facebook
Emphasis on participating and uploading or providing information and sharing (getting feedback) Web2.0 Greater (technical) interactivity
-Simple level where students click on a hyperlink and move to a new page
-Complex with sites that run online quizzes or ask for feedback on content.
More open tasks
Develop information seeking skills
Practise reading, skimming and scanning sites as appropriate
Student controlled tasks
-more autonomous study skills
-pursue areas of particular interest
BUT difficulty in accessing sites - slow downloads/ sites changing Online multi-tasking ( MSN, e-mail and browsing can be a distraction)
Lower quality of audio/ video online
Harder to monitor and track students’ learning
Some advantages and disadvantages of the Internet Why use word processor?
Word processors for teachers Using word processors Why use websites?
ELT websites & authentic websites
How to find useful websites?
How to evaluate websites?
Planning lessons using the Internet
Web teaching dos and don’ts Using web resource Blogs in language teaching
Wikis in language teaching
Podcasts in language teaching
Blogs, wikis and podcasts Dictionaries & thesauruses
Encyclopedias Online reference tools Producing electronic materials Example: Authorware, Director, Flash, etc. Hotpotato 6
Prezi The Hot Potatoes suite includes six applications, enabling you to create interactive multiple-choice, short-answer, jumbled-sentence, crossword, matching/ordering and gap-fill exercises for the World Wide Web.
Hot Potatoes is freeware, and you may use it for any purpose or project you like. It is not open-source. Hotpotato 6 Mind Mapping is a tool for creative thinking. It is really easy - you draw a picture of your thoughts! You use the left half of your brain for logical thinking - for files and facts, and the right half for pictures and colors. Only if both halves of the brain are used can creativity really be released.
The Mind Map® technique can help you record and organize information quickly and solve problems by seeing them in a new way. It helps you to put your thoughts down on paper as they arrive. You don't have to finish a train of thought: you can jump back and forth between ideas as they come to you.
You can use a Mind Map to:
Organize information (for lessons, research papers, hobbies)
Plan a party or a vacation
Develop a plot for a story
Make a "To Do" list or shopping list
eMindMaps Languages Online Game Makers are downloadable step-by-step 'templates' that allow students and teachers to create interactive language tasks and games using their own text, pictures or voice recordings. Game Makers are easy to use and are suitable for all skill levels. Games can be created in ANY LANGUAGE that your computer supports.
When complete, games can be saved as either a webpage or as a program file. They can be copied to a disc, memory stick or onto another computer or network to share with others.
Currently three game makers are available. New game makers are now in development and will be released as they are completed. These will focus on different language skills. Online Game Makers Prezi is a web-based presentation application and storytelling tool that uses a single canvas instead of traditional slides. Text, images, videos and other presentation objects are placed on the infinite canvas and grouped together in frames. The canvas allows users to create non-linear presentations, where they can zoom in and out of a visual map. A path through different objects and frames can be defined, representing the order of the information to be presented. The presentation can be developed in a browser window, then downloaded so that an internet connection is not needed when showing the presentation.
Prezi uses the freemium model. Customers who use the free Prezi Public license must publish their work on the [Prezi site]. Customers who pay for a Prezi Enjoy or Prezi Pro license can create and share private Prezis. Prezi also offers a special education license for students and educators.
(cited from Wikipedia 2010) Prezi (The Zooming Presentation Editor) New technology (but it’s still pedagogy)
Teachers will make the difference (not the technology)
Reflection on what the technology changes in teaching and learning interactions, replaces or displaces in the learning ecology Some conclusions Questions & comments Finally a big
to all who have helped me, listened, and taken part in today’s workshop.