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Draw-A-Person Intellectual Test

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Al Fernandes

on 1 August 2014

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Transcript of Draw-A-Person Intellectual Test

Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test
for Children, Adolescents and Adults

The Test
What to do with the DAP:IQ?
DAP:IQ Evaluation

Developed by Reynolds and Hickman (2004)
Seeks to enhance the use of Human Figure Drawings (HFD) for cognitive assessment
Involves a common set of objective scoring criteria to estimate intellectual ability from a HFD
Can be used on children, youth and adults
Written at a Grade 5 reading level
Theoretical Basis for DAP:IQ
Improves the practice of objectively evaluating HFDs as a measurement of cognitive ability by scoring elements representative of the universal features of the human figure
Video on Goodenough's fundamental role
DAP:IQ Administration
No questionnaire/form - Just a blank piece of paper and pencil + scoring sheet
Emphasize it is NOT about the style or motor coordination skills but the content
8-15 minutes
Individual and Group Settings
Level B (Administrator)
What is the DAP:IQ?
3 relative sources of error variance
Content Sampling: .74 to .82
Time Sampling(Test-Retest): .84
Interscorer Reliability: .91 and .95
Based on prior DAP scoring systems like Goodenough, Harris, Koppitz & Naglieri
Compared with Koppitz's Draw-a-Person projective test and WISC III - Correlations: .40 to .60
Norm Sampling
2,295 individuals that closely match the 2001 U.S. Census
4 years, 0 mon to 89 years, 11 mon
Continuous norming procedure
Rationale for Use
Psychoeducational tool
Psychological evaluative/screening tool
Demonstrates clear developmental sequence
Showcases fluid intelligence
Can be used with the general population
*NOTE: Awareness of not attaching psychodynamic meaning to drawings
Case Vignette
Raw Score:
IQ Score:
IQ Qualitative Identifier:
Superior (120-129)
Percentile Rank:
Applicable to diverse cultures, non-English speaking individuals
Can be administered in most challenging situations (Abell, Wood & Leibman, 2001)
Most objective scoring criteria for HFD to date
Normed for adults
Good Reliability : Recent interscorer reliability scores (.83) and intrascorer reliability (.92) on college students (Williams, Fall, Eaves & Wood-Groves, 2006)
Validity testing only done on children
High false positives and high false negatives (Imuta, Scarf, Pharo & Hayne, 2013)
DAP:IQ vs Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (3rd Ed) and Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence
Formal training in interpretation required
Knowledge of Standards of Educational and Psychological Testing required
Must be used in conjunction with other intelligence measures
Theoretical background established 30 years ago
Assign points based on criteria met in 23 standardized scored items = Raw Score (Max=49)
Transform score into standardized IQ based on normed table
Mean = 100
Standard Deviation(SD) = 15
Age and grade equivalents also provided
Mildly impaired - > or = to 1.3 SD below mean IQ
Significantly impaired - > 2 SD below mean IQ
Scores can also be described with
Percentile Rank, T-scores, z-scores, stanine
Useful as an adjunct to intellectual functioning assessment
Caution due to recent research that indicates it lacks ability to correctly screen children based on intellectual functioning
*Why choose this test over other available briefer, more comprehensive measures of intellectual capabilities?
Clinical Recommendations

Althea Fernandes
5 yo, 6 mon, Female, Grade 1, Parent requesting inteliigence testing

Instructions: "I want you to draw a picture of yourself. Be sure to draw your whole body, not just your head, and draw how you look from the front, not from the side. Do not draw a cartoon or stick figure. Draw the very best picture of yourself that you can. Take your time and work carefully. Go ahead."

Abell, S.C., Wood, W., & Leibman, S.I. (2001). Children’s human figure
drawings as measures of intelligence: The comparative validity
of three scoring systems. Journal of Psychoeducational
Assessment, 19, 204-215.
Imuta, K., Scarf, D., Pharo, H., & Hayne, H. (2013). Drawing a close to
the use of human figure drawings as a projective measure of
intelligence. PLoS ONE, 8(3): e58991. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058991
Reynolds, C.R., & Hickman, J. A. (2004). Draw-a- person intellectual
ability test for children, adolescents, and adults: Examiner’s
manual. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Williams, T.O., Fall, A.M., Eaves, R.C.,& Wood-Groves, S. (2006). The
reliability of scores for the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability
Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults. Journal of
Psychoeducational Assessment, 24, 137–144. doi:

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