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Human Trafficking - international

Human Trafficking
by

Jordan Shivers

on 3 May 2010

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Transcript of Human Trafficking - international

Human Trafficking The action of recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, or reciept of presons by means of the threat or use of force coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power vulnerability, or giving payments or benefits to a person in control of the victim for the purpose of exploitation, which includes exploiting the prostitution of others, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery or similar practices, and the removal of organs. Origin Country Transit Country Destination Country a country where victims of human trafficking are taken from 27 countries classified as "very high" countries of origin a country where trafficking victims temporarily stop on the way to their destination country a country where the trafficking victims are transported for enslavement 22 countries classified as "very high" destination countries countries struggling with poverty, war, gender inequality, corruption, natural disasters, climate, or governmental and economical problems countries with economic promise, high demands for consumer sex, high tourism rates, as well as other economical reasons Stages Stage 1: The Context of Vulnerability allows the traffickers to get in touch with the victims Stage 2: Recruitment the traffickers lure the victims in Stage 3: Removal the victims are removed, often smuggled out of the country Stage 4: Transportation victims are now transported through systems of varying complecities to take them to their destination country Stage 6: Arrival the victims arrive and learn the truth about their new enviornment Stage 7: Exploitation Resolution this is the end of the trafficking cycle and the way that each person gets out is different Stage 8: According to the Human Trafficking Protocol exploitation includes “exploiting the prostitution of others, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery or similar practices, and the removal of organs.” Stage 5: Establishment of Control the trafficker does whatever he or she can to establish and maintain control United States Classifications Tier 1 a country that has little or no involvement with human trafficking Tier 2 a country that participates in human trafficking but is making an effort to face the problem Tier 3 a country that participates in the trafficking of humans and show little progress in stopping it Besides breaking laws against human trafficking traffickers are also breaking numerous other laws The ability and willingness of countries with trafficking problems is what prohibits the fight against human trafficking Background Slavery Human trafficking has just recently been used as a term to describe modern forms of enslavement
6800 BC - first Mesopotamian city was developed and warfare began capturing the prisoners of war for slaves
1250 AD - Trans-Saharan Trade - between 5,000 - 25,000 slaves were taken from Africa and traded into Europe and the middle east
After the black plague, wars, and other epidimics labor shortages brought a new need for slaves
1444 - the Atlantic Slave Trade - between 1444 and 1870 13 milion slaves were captured out of Africa
Abolition acts in various countries started in the 19th century and lasted throughout the 20th century Nigeria Population: 154,729,000
Location: West Africa
"medium" level destination country
"low" level transit country
ranked in the top 11 for origin countries
Tier 2 country
Common Nigeria exploitation: blood money” fraud, prostitution, child marriage, and forced labor
Major forces behind Nigerian trafficking: extreme poverty, a low rate of education, a tradition of child labor, a low/unequal status of women, high orphan rates, and corruption India Population: 1,180,082,000
Location: Southeast Asia
"high" level origin country
"high" level destination country
"medium" level transit country
Tier 2 wath list country
Common India explpoitation: prostitution, forced marriage, child marriage, involuntary domestic servitude, forced labor, child soldiers, and organ harvesting
Major Forces Behind Indian Trafficking: poverty, the low status of women, discrimination against scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, natural disasters, inactivity of the government, corruption, and affordability of higher education Belize Population: 307,899
Location: Cantral America
"low" level origin country
"low" level destination country
Not listed as a transit country
Tier 3 country
Common Belize exploitation: sexual exploitation and forced labor
Major Forces Behind Belize Trafficking: history, geography, shifting demographics, poverty, education, sex tourism, prostitution, government inactivity, and corruption In order to combat human trafficking countries must look at the problem specifically in their country and devise a plan to tackle it The Response Nigeria September 2006 - Nigeria releases members of their documentation staff for taking part in issuing false documents
June 2007 - the members of the government were on trial for their crimes
Trafficking in Persons Law Enforcement and Administration Act
Child's Rights Act
Made an effort to inform the public about trafficking
International Level: signed and ratified many United Nations conventions, protocols, and efforts to stop human trafficking India Prevention of Immoral Traffic Act
Bonded Labor System (abolition) Act
Child Mariage Laws
Laws against dowry
Discrimination Prevention Laws
Traffickers are often arrested but actual convictions are rare
India supports many international conventions, protocols, and efforts but has not ratified all of these causes Belize Belize has fluctuated from a Tier 3 to a Tier 2 country often in the past 7 years
Belize makes laws agains human trafficking but fails to enforce and follow them keeping them as a Tier 3 country
Trafficking in Persons Prohibition Act
Promotion of awareness about human trafficking
The Belize Tourism Industry Association connection with End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography, and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes Col
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