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{Presentation Skills}

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Shari Julla

on 7 February 2013

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Transcript of {Presentation Skills}

With Inday Tikay Presentation Skills EFFECTIVE PUBLIC
SPEAKING SKILLS PRESENTATIONS SPEAKING Making an effective presentation involves communicating an idea to an audience in a clear, concise and compelling fashion. There are a number of guidelines that can help us to understand how to ‘present with impact’, they include: 1. Have a clear message. Know exactly what idea you want the
audience to have in their head when you
finish talking.

This outcome or goal should be specific
and contain clear, precise ‘next steps’. 2. Make the content meaningful to the audience. Think about the audiences’ needs, concerns and expectations and address them directly during the talk. 3. Adopt a logical structure. Ensure that the talk is easy to follow by giving it a logical flow e.g. check that there is a clear beginning, middle and end. 4. Speak naturally and with pride. Project your voice so that you can
easily be heard, make eye contact with
the audience and be positive and
enthusiastic as you deliver your message. Starting a Presentation 1.Get people's attention
2.Welcome them
3.Introduce yourself
4.State the purpose of your presentation
5.State how you want to deal with questions Signposting When we are giving a presentation, there are certain key words we use to ’signpost’ different stages in our presentation. When you want to make your next point, you ‘move on’. When you want to change to a completely different topic, you ‘turn to’. When you want to give more details about a topic you ‘expand’ or ‘elaborate’. When you want to talk about something which is off the topic of your presentation, you ‘digress’. When you want to refer back to an earlier point, you ‘go back’. To just give the outline of a point, you ’summarize’. To repeat the main points of what you have said, you ‘recap’. For your final remarks, you ‘conclude’. Survival Language If you get your facts wrong.
If you have been going too fast and your audience is having trouble keeping up with you.
If you have forgotten to make a point.
If you have been too complicated and want to simplify what you said.
If you realize that what you are saying makes no sense.
If you cannot remember the term in English.
If you are short of time. A Friendly Face It's a big help for any speaker to have a 'friend' / 'friends' in the audience. 'Friends' 'Impress
me' Once you are aware that there are people in your audience who want you to succeed, you’ll be much more likely to succeed. THE MICROPHONE As a general rule, try to speak more clearly.
Step back a bit when using a standing mike.
Don’t turn your head away from the microphone while you are speaking, except for coughs and sneezes.
Avoid nervous gestures (noise).
If you are wearing a clip-on mike, make sure it is not rubbing up against some clothing or jewelery. Dealing with Nerves 1. Don’t get hung up about being nervous. It’s a normal human reaction.
2. Walk off your excessive nervousness.
3. Don’t let your legs go to sleep.
4. Work your wrists, arms and shoulders to get the tension out of them.
5. Work your jaw: gentle side-to-side or circular motion.
6. Repeat positive affirmations quietly to yourself. “I am a good presenter.” It may seem corny but it works.
7. Above all, breathe deeply. Make sure your stomach is going out when you breathe in. Stand Up When You Speak For most purposes, when you give a presentation you should stand. move around the room
make eye contact
reach props and teaching material
involve your whole body
sending the signal the presentation will be short. Stating your purpose It is important to state your purpose clearly at the beginning of your talk.
Here are some ways to do this: talk about
= to speak about a subject report on
= to tell you about what has been done. take a look at
= to examine tell you about
= to speak to someone to give them information or instructions show
= to explain something by doing it or by giving instructions. outline
= to give the main facts or information about something. fill you in on
= to give some extra or
missing information give an overview of
= to give a short description
with general information but no details. highlight
= draw attention to or emphasize the important fact or facts. discuss
= to talk about ideas
or opinions on a subject in more detail. VISUALS When we are giving lots of information, we often use visuals to give an overview. However, we often need to highlight only one or two key points or figures and then comment on them. Emphasizing a total disaster The whole project was a total disaster from beginning to end. extremely good We have an extremely good chance of getting the project approved. • a terrible mistake It wasn’t a minor error. It was a terrible mistake and cost us millions to put right. much cheaper Even if we had taken five per cent off our projection, we wouldn’t have got the slot. They were much better prepared than us. •one hundred percent certain There is not the slightest doubt. I am one hundred percent certain that that is what happened. highly competitive This is a highly competitive field. I am not sure we should enter it. far too expensive The Chinese and Koreans can offer much lower prices. We are far too expensive. even better Their previous smart phone was good but this is even better. fully aware I am fully aware of all the risks but I still think we should do it. absolutely no chance There is absolutely no chance that we will lose the contract. They love our work. openly admit I openly admit that I have made mistakes.

If they openly admit that they were at fault, they may get the public back on their side. totally agree I totally agree with what Ms. Bermejo said.

I totally agree with the previous speaker. strongly recommend I strongly recommend that we invest in the library project.
The consultants strongly recommend that we pull out of the identified barangay completely. firmly believe We firmly believe that this institution has an excellent future ahead of it.

I firmly believe that I am the best candidate for the job. positively encourage I would like to positively encourage you to apply for the post.

I want to positively encourage you to continue with what you are doing. fully appreciate I fully appreciate that investing more in the unfinished project is a risk.

We fully appreciate the efforts you have made on our behalf. categorically deny I categorically deny that I did anything wrong.

My superior categorically denies all the charges. absolutely refuse I absolutely refuse to continue with this.
I absolutely refuse to consider the possibility of failure. Softening Little
The quality could have been a little better.
The speaker should have spoken a little louder. Slight
There is a slight problem we need to deal with.
I have a slight doubt about Dr. Velasquez’s
suitability for the job. Minor
I have a minor reservation about this plan.
There are a few minor problems still to be dealt with. Fairly

There are some fairly important
changes still to be made.

I think that I have a fairly good
understanding of your problems. Quite
I quite like it but no more than that.
This is quite a good way to do this. Not quite
He isn't quite as good as he thinks he is.
I'm not quite sure that we are on the right lines. Partially
He has been partially successful with his demands but he didn't get everything he wanted.
It is partially finished but there is still a lot to do. Occasional
There are occasional errors in his work.
Everybody makes occasional mistakes. Rather
He is rather aggressive.
This is rather too complicated. It is difficult to understand. More or less
The report is more or less finished. I just need to read through it again.
He is more or less useless. Cannot get anything right. Asking for clarification Firstly, we can simply ask them to repeat what they said.

Could you say that again please?
I didn’t follow that. Could you repeat it? Secondly, we can ask them to say again a specific piece of information.

•What time did you say?
•Where exactly are we to meet? Sometimes you can only ask questions at the end of a presentation. In that case, you need to refer back to the point in the talk you need clarification on. Here are some useful expressions to help you do that: First focus on the point you want to discuss You talked about
You told us about
You dealt with
You described
You commented on
You referred to
You mentioned Then ask for clarification Could you tell us
Could you explain
Could you be a bit more specific?
Could you give us more details?
Could you elaborate on that? Dealing with Questions • If it is a good question, thank the person and answer it.
• Some of the questions may be irrelevant and not connected to what you want to say.
Say so and get another question.
• Some may be unnecessary because you have already given the answer.
Repeat the answer briefly and get the next question.
• And some may be difficult because you don't have the information.
Again, say so and offer to find the information or ask the person asking the question what they think. When you get a question, comment on it first. This will give you time to think. Here are some useful expressions to help you do that: • That's a very interesting question.
• I'm glad you've asked that question.
• A good question.
• I'm sorry but I don't have that information to hand.
• Can I get back to you about that?
• I'm afraid I can't answer that.
• I'm not in a position to comment on that.
• As I said earlier, …
• I think I answered that when I said …
• I did mention that.
• I don't see the connection.
• I'm sorry, I don’t follow you.
• I think that is a very different issue. Here are some useful expressions for when you are making a presentation or talk, perhaps in a meeting or in a congress or perhaps more informally in a discussion around the coffee table. Are there any questions?
That’s a good question.
As I said earlier, ..….
I’m afraid I can’t answer that.
I’m afraid I don’t know.
I’m not in a position to answer that. Here are some ways of dealing with questions when you are the SPEAKER: When you don't want to answer:
• To be honest, I'm not really the
person to ask about that. When someone interrupts you:
• Sorry, could I just finish? When you finally understand what they want to know:
• Oh I see. So what you are asking is … When you realize they don't understand what you said:
• Perhaps I didn't make myself clear.
What I was trying to say was … If you don't want to tell everyone:
• Perhaps we can talk about it when I have finished. To close off the presentation:
• If there are no more questions, we should stop there. Here are some ways of getting an answer
when you are the QUESTIONER: When the answer doesn't give you the information you want:
• Yes, that may be so, but what I want to know is … When the answer is evasive:
• Yes, but you still haven't answered my question. If you are skeptical and want more detail:
•Well, I'm not so sure. Can you give us an example to illustrate that? If you don't agree:
• That may be so, but I still think ... Presentations are more interesting if you use a conversational style. For example:
Late registration is a big problem. What is the best solution?
There are two possible solutions. First … Rhetorical Questions When we really want to focus the attention of our audience on an important point, we can use this "What ……. is …." Focusing attention Look at these examples:
• We must cut costs.
• What we must do is cut costs.

• We need more reliable suppliers.
• What we need is more reliable suppliers. Cause and effect When you are giving a presentation, your job is to not only present the facts but also to give the reasons (why), the purpose (objectives) and the results. For example:
Reason:
• We sold the land because we needed to release the cash.
• We closed the offices in Busay because they were too expensive to run.
Purpose:
• We set up the team to look at possible ways to improve efficiency.
• We sold the land to get necessary capital for investment.
Result:
o We sold the land and had enough cash to invest in new equipment.
o We expanded the marketing network and enrollment increased. CLOSINGS Briefly Summarizing
Your Development. Referencing Your
Opening. Using a Quotation Making a Dramatic Statement Useful Terms For Presentations Presentation Keywords for Signposts Speakers are LEADERS. common letter combinations with silent letters Silent B

B is not pronounced when following M at the end of a word.

climb
crumb
dumb
comb Silent C

C is not pronounced in the ending "scle"

muscle Silent D

D is not pronounced in the following common words:

handkerchief
sandwich
Wednesday Silent E

E is not pronounced at the end of words and usually makes the vowel long.

hope
drive
gave
write
site Silent G

G is not often not pronounced when followed by an N

champagne
foreign
sign
feign Silent GH

GH is not pronounced before T and at the end of many words

thought
through
daughter
light
might
right
fight
weigh Silent H

H is not pronounced when following W. Some speakers whisper the H before the W.

what
when
where
whether
why Silent H

H is not pronounced at the beginning of many words. Use the article "an" with unvoiced H. Here are some of the most common:

hour
honest
honor
heir
herb Pronounced H

H is pronounced at the beginning of these common words. Use the article "a" with voiced H.

hill
history
height
happy
hangover Silent K

K is not pronounced when followed by N at the beginning of a word.

knife
knee
know
knock
knowledge Silent L

L is often not pronounced before L, D, F, M, K.

calm
half
salmon
talk
balk
would
should Silent N

N is not pronounced following M at the end of a word.

autumn
hymn Silent P

P is not pronounced at the beginning of many words using the suffix "psych" and "pneu".

psychiatrist
pneumonia
psychotherapy
psychotic Silent S

S is not pronounced before L in the following words:

island
isle Silent T

T is not pronounced in these common words:

castle
Christmas
fasten
listen
often
whistle
thistle Silent U

U is not pronounced before after G and before a vowel.

guess
guidance
guitar
guest Silent W

W is not pronounced at the beginning of a word followed by an R.

wrap
write
wrong Silent W

W is not pronounced with these three pronouns:

who
whose
whom The following series of pronunciation exercises combines words beginning with the same consonant sound followed by similar vowel sounds. ih - pronounced 'ih' as in 'hit'

big
pig
did
tip
gill
kill
sip
zip
ship
gin
chip
hit ee - pronounced 'ee' as in 'see'

beat
peep
deal
teeth
gee!
keep
see
zeal
sheet
jeep
cheek
heat eh - pronounced 'eh'
as in 'let'

bet
pet
death
tell
get
kept
set
zeppelin
shelf
jell
chess
help ae - pronounced 'ae' as in 'cat'

bat
pat
dad
tap
gap
cat
sat
zap
shaft
jack
chat
hat 'long ah' as in 'heart'

bar
par
dark
tar
Garth
carpet
sergeant
sharp
John
charred
heart 'short ah' as in 'got'

bought
paw
dot
taught
got
caught
saw
shawl
jot
chocolate
hop 'long uh' as in 'put'

butcher
put
Tokay
good
cook
soot
shook
churn
hook 'oo' as in 'shoe'

boot
poof!
do
tooth
Google
cool
suit
zoom
shoot
June
choose
who 'short uh' as in 'up'

but
pup
duck
tough
gulp
cup
supper
shut
jump
Chuck
hup! 'ou' as in 'home'

bowl
Pope
don't
toe
go
cope
soap
zone
show
Jones
chose
home 'ow' as in 'house'

bow
pow-wow
Dow
towel
gouge
cow
sour
zowie!
shower
jowl
ciao!
howl 'oi' as in 'boy'

boy
poise
doily
toy
goiter
coy
soy sauce
join
choice
hoist 'ay' as in 'day'

bay
pay
day
table
gay
cake
say
zany
shape
Jake
chase
hey! 'ai' as in 'die'

buy
pie
die
tie
guy
kite
sigh
Zaire
shy
jive
child
hi 'ieh(r)' as in 'near'

beer
peer
dear
tear (drop of water)
gear
clear
seer
sheer
jeer
cheer
here 'ehi(r)' as in 'hair'

bear
pear
dare
tear (rip)
garish
Claire
snare
share
Jerry
chair
hair ih - pronounced 'ih' as in 'hit'

big
pig
did
tip
gill
kill
sip
zip
ship
gin
chip
hit ee - pronounced 'ee' as in 'see'

beat
peep
deal
teeth
gee!
keep
see
zeal
sheet
jeep
cheek
heat eh - pronounced 'eh' as in 'let'

bet
pet
death
tell
get
kept
set
zeppelin
shelf
jell
chess
help ae - pronounced 'ae' as in 'cat'

bat
pat
dad
tap
gap
cat
sat
zap
shaft
jack
chat
hat Pronunciation is EVERYTHING. six sloppy speech habits
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