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Intro12 Glob7 Social movements
Transcript of Intro12 Glob7 Social movements
radical – changing value systems (ex. new policital system - Polish Solidarity or Korean Minjung) innovative or conservative
(whether to introduce something new or defend/restore something old) Source: Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Types_of_social_movements.svg While we often associate social movements with positive change, some movements have led to negative or even catastrophic outcomes The Ku Klux Klan
al Qaeda It can be estimated that each year, about 2-3% of existing social movement organizations disappear. Social movement industries last decades, but can disappear too - although often, a trace will remain. They may get incorporated into other movements; for example anti-slavery movement was drastically reduced abolishment of slavery in the West in the 19th century, but slavery still remains, and anti-slavery activism is part of the modern human rights movement. Source: Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Stages_of_social_movements.svg Modern social movements date to 18th century in Europe, although elements of social movement activity existed worldwide for centuries before.
-- Charles Tilly, Social Movements, 1768–2004 (p.16-37) Major theoretical approaches to social movements In psychological COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR theory, social movements were seen as a result of crowd sociology: crowds cause people to act in a certain way, and people form crowds to act that way.
This theory does not explain long term movement dynamics, only short term formation and protest actions. Repertoire of contention REPERTOIRE OF CONTENTION refers to the set of various protest-related tools and actions available to a movement or related organization in a given time frame. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Repertoire_of_contention Actions and tools that belong to common repertoires of contention include, but are not limited to: creation of special-purpose associations and coalitions, public meetings, solemn processions, vigils, rallies, demonstrations, sit-ins, petition drives, statements to and in public media, boycotts, strikes and pamphleteering. Like social movements themselves, repertoires change over time, and can vary from place to place. What kind of tools and actions available to movements can we think of? Which of them have been brought by the Internet? Source: Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bildungsstreik_G%C3%B6ttingen_1568.jpg Sit-in in Germany http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collective_behavior In the NEW SOCIAL MOVEMENTS approach social movements were considered to result from the legitimate grievances (deprivation) of large sectors of society. This is also known as the DEPRIVATION THEORY. NSM theory was and is heavily Marxist in orientation.
This theory may put too much stress on grievances. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_social_movement_theory RESOURCE MOBILIZATION theory stresses the ability of movement's members to 1) acquire resources and to 2) mobilize people towards accomplishing the movement's goals. Social movements need the above resources to be effective, because dissent and grievances alone will not generate social change.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resource_mobilization http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relative_deprivation_theory Unaddressed grievances High inequality / stratification Gap between societal values and social reality Political opportunities Existence of voluntary organizations
symbols What are the characteristics of modern social movements in Korea? Why people protest? Factors influencing the growth of social movements
Increasing political pluralism and political enfranchisement (democratization)
Decline in repression
Division within elites (particularly when it grows to a point where some support organized opposition) Resources (people, money) available for movements people won't protest if they are satisfied increses increases increases increases increaes increases makes more likely Cultural factors (liberalism, tradition/approval of challenging authority) support increase The principle of non-violence has been an important feature of social movements, granting them increased legitimacy in modern culture Some researchers argue that violence is necessary for social movements to achieve their goals -- James W. Button (1978), Black violence: political impact of the 1960s riots At least five conditions contribute to the effectiveness of violence as a social movement strategy:
People in power actually have the resources to meet the social movement demands
Violence is not so severe as to represent a threat to social order
Many of the public and those in power sympathize with the goals of the social movement
The aims of the movement are limited, specific, and clear
Violence is used in conjunction with non-violent strategies Read more in Roger Powers S (2012). Protest, Power, and Change: An Encyclopedia of Nonviolent Action Here's a matrix of target and scope that includes communication networks and their capabilities major social revolutions of the modern age were correlated with people becoming literate there is much discussion how access to media like TV led to people expressing grievianes People in North Korea are watching South Korean television and films. What can this lead to? Social strain theory explains the rise of social movements as follows:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strain_theory_(sociology) FRAME ANALYSIS THEORY stresses that individuals discussing social issues create the language and ideas FRAMING the grievances into language that will appeal to a broader society. This leads to the development of beliefs, ideologies, and increased commitment. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Framing_%28social_sciences%29 Social movements arise because people want to protest against a perceived problem in a society, and organize. Problems may include
locking of culture
and others conservative anti-change counter movements can emerge to counter the pro-change movements ex. right for abortion vs. anti-abortion movements Prezi by Piotr Konieczny
Licenced under CC-BY-SA 3.0 Why is it that people who do something in a crowd that they wouldn't do by themselves? Videos for discussion http://www.ted.com/talks/gordon_brown.html We're at a unique moment in history, says UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown: we can use today's interconnectedness to develop our shared global ethic -- and work together to confront the challenges of poverty, security, climate change and the economy.
Britain's former prime minister Gordon Brown played a key role in shaping the G20 nations' response to the world's financial crisis, and was a powerful advocate for a coordinated global response to problems such as climate change, poverty and social justice http://www.ted.com/talks/kevin_bales_how_to_combat_modern_slavery.html In this moving yet pragmatic talk, Kevin Bales explains the business of modern slavery, a multibillion-dollar economy that underpins some of the worst industries on earth. He shares stats and personal stories from his on-the-ground research -- and names the price of freeing every slave on earth right now.
Kevin Bales is the co-founder of Free the Slaves, whose mission is to end all forms of human slavery within the next 25 years. He's the author of "Ending Slavery: How We Free Today's Slaves." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_movement_organization Can we name some social movement organizations specific to Korea, and note what social movement industry they are a part of? Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ku_Klux_Klan_members_march_down_Pennsylvania_Avenue_in_Washington,_D.C._in_1928.jpg This is also a social movement... History of the social movements Resource theory assumes people are rational, calculate costs and benefits, and that resources tip the balance in favor of protest.
This theory may put too much stress on resources, and sees humans as very rational. a) structural conductivity - people come to believe their society has problems
b) structural strain - people experience deprivation
c) growth and spread of a solution - a solution to
the problems people are experiencing is proposed and spreads
d) precipitating factors - discontent usually requires a catalyst (often a specific event) to turn it into a social movement
e) lack of social control - the entity that is to be changed must be at least somewhat open to the change; if the social movement is quickly and powerfully repressed, it may never materialize
f) mobilization - this is the actual organizing and active component of the movement; people do what needs to be done Consider for example why protests in some countries are more violent, and in others - more peaceful.