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Transcript of Research Methodology
You will also have A3 paper and a big pen
Your group will have 2 mins 23 seconds to write a description of the phenomenon without using any of the words on the note card in the box
Groups will then share descriptions and others will guess what it is What is the point? Maybe your phenomenon is:
The way it is researched effects what it actually is Dr Fran Tracy
Dr Tejendra Pherali Week 25 – Understanding Different Research Approaches Introduction to the theories and ideologies behind research methods
Understanding of the assumptions that are held in different methodological choices
A review of the advantages and disadvantages of different methodological approaches Aims for today Research is discovering, understanding or creating knowledge
There are debates about ‘what kinds of knowledge’ are possible - Two major worldviews to knowledge: Research and knowledge The meaning of or the meaningful reality of a tree is constructed by the people who experience it and therefore, the meaningful reality of the tree is the outcome of ‘cultural, historical, political and social norms ‘ of the people who give meaning to it. ‘Tree in the forest is a tree, regardless of whether anyone is aware of its existence or not. As an object of that kind (‘objectively’, therefore), it carries the intrinsic meaning of ‘tree-ness’. When human beings recognise it as a tree, they are simply discovering a meaning that has been lying there in wait for them all along.’ Phenomenon Group Game Lets try it out with our phenomena: Which is Best? Can you guess the phenomenon based solely on my qualitative description? Can you guess the phenomenon based solely on my quantitative description? (Neuman, 2003: 16) Qualitative Approach
Construct social reality, cultural meaning
Authenticity is key
Values are present and explicit
Few cases, subjects
Researcher is involved Quantitative Approach
Measures quantitative facts
Reliability is key
Independent of context
Many cases, subjects
Researcher is detached
Creates generalisations Methodology: a strategy that guides the choice of specific research methods:
Survey, experiment, ethnography, action research, grounded theory, discourse analysis, phenomenological research Qualitative and quantitative methods can be compatible
Pragmatists consider the research question to be more important than either the method they use or the epistemology and theoretical perspectives underlying it
Pragmatists use whatever methods are most suited to answer the research question (Tashakkori and Teddlie, 1998) Mixed Methods and Pragmatism Define – discover facts
Control (remember Foucault)
The researcher is attempting to gain an understanding of the phenomena under study in numerical terms so that he may use this understanding in order to make predictions about the real world, and thus develop technologies or procedures which allow a degree of control to be exerted over that phenomena Aims of Quantitative Research The Experimental Method
Attitude Scales Main Quantitative Methods Disadvantages of Quantitative Research Advantages of Quantitative Research Seeks to examine a world of phenomena expressed through words, not numbers.
It is about the QUALITY and richness of the data and its results, rather than the QUANTITY.
It is to do with description, explanation and interpretation of data in order to understand the phenomenon in a meaningful way.
(Silverman, 2005) Qualitative Research Observation
Exam papers, essays, reports, diaries
Video observation, video stimulated recall, audio recordings Qualitative Methods Disadvantages of Qualitative Research Advantages of Qualitative Research Mixed methods – allows for triangulation
Get generalised but shallow quantitative data to show wide trends
Use qualitative methods to explain the phenomena identified (why?) and to understand how to change for the better Which is best for policy making? Research should be used to develop and evaluate government policy
There are folders in Blackboard with papers reporting research that relates to different policies
Access 3 of these and review the methods used to research that policy.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using those methods?
Qualitative/ Quantitative/ Mixed Methods How does this relate to policy ? Bogdan, R. C. and Biklen, S. K. (1998) Research for education: An introduction to theory and methods, London, Allyn & Bacon.
Bryman, A (2008) Social Research Methods, Oxford University Press: Oxford
Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrisson, K. (2007) Research methods in education, London, Routledge.
Crotty, M. (1998) The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research process, London, Sage.
Maxwell, J.A. (2005) Qualitative Research Design, London: Sage.
Neuman, W. L. (2003) Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, London, Pearson Education.
Punch, K.F. (2009) Introduction to research methods in education, London: Sage.
Silverman, A (2005) Doing Qualitative Research, Sage: London
Smith, M. J. (1998) Social science in question, London, Sage Publications.
Stake, R.E. (1995) The Art of Case Study Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Tashakkori ,A. and Teddlie, C. (1998) Mixed Methodology: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Thousand Oaks, London:Sage. Further Reading: