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Central American Caregiving
Transcript of Central American Caregiving
Central American Immigrant Caregiving in Los Angeles:
Transitioning into and Living "La Tercera Edad"
University of California, Los Angeles
Ph.D. Student in the Department of Chicana and Chicano Studies.
by Carlos Rogel
for Prof. Abrego's
CS 281 - Central Americans in Los Angeles
Introduction: Caregiving and Independence
Ten Participants contributed one interview on their history, current employment status, retirement experiences, caregiving, and views on aging. There were two research sites. The interviews lasted for approximately one-and-half hours.
The data collection and analysis was done over a 3 week period. Each interview was structured. Each interview was recorded and transcribed in Spanish, except for 2.
All interviews were conducted in Spanish by our 5-person group. Interview data was transcribed and coded in English.
Data analysis (Maxwell, 2013) of the interviews was done using categories for instances of caregiving, dependency or external help, health, children, parents, and extended family, documented status, retirement status, and insurance status, among others.
Ages 50-75 living in the Los Angeles region.
Sample size: 10
Mean age: 61; Median age: 58.5
Countries of origin: El Salvador (6) & Guatemala (4)
Two pairs of marriages in the sample size
5 are Residents (1 not qualifying for Medicare/Medicaid/S.S); 4 are Citizens; 1 is Undocumented.
How does citizenship status affect caregiving and independence for immigrant Central Americans nearing retirement and their families?
"Yo pienso así porque yo tengo amistades de la tercera edad, y ellos conocen el sistema. Incluso, yo conozco una señora que tiene 80 años y ella todavía trabaja en lo que sale. Digo
está en una edad; ella dice que se va a retirar pero no sabe cuando. Ella dice en sus palabras, 'No quiero depender de nadie, y yo quiero seguir con mi fuerza.' " -
and Public Insurance Programs
Rayden Llano. “Immigrants and Barriers to Healthcare: Comparing Policies in the United States and the United Kingdom.” Stamford Journal of Public Health 2011.
With the exception of emergency medical care, undocumented immigrants are not eligible for federally funded public health insurance programs. This includes Medicare, Medicaid, and the Child Health Insurance Program (CHIP).
PRUCOL (Permanent Residence Under Color of Law) made
eligible for medicare and medicaid. The passing of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 eliminated their eligibility with the exception of emergency services.
As of March 2010, an estimated 11.2 million undocumented immigrants were living in the United States, a figure equivalent to 3.7% of the nation’s population.
Age and Gender Distribution for Race, Ethnicity, and Nativity Groups: 2011
Source: Pew Hispanic Center tabulations of 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)
Passel, Jeffrey S. Unauthorized Immigrant Population: National and State Trends, 2010. Pew Hispanic Center, February 2011. Estimates are based on the U.S. Census Bureau’s Current Population Surveys, March 2010 Supplement.
Universe: 2011 resident population
Aging and Undocumented Families
The Full Retirement Age
Full retirement age was 65 for many years. However, beginning with people born in 1938 or later, that age gradually increases until it reaches 67 for people born after 1959.
Median household wealth among Hispanics fell from $18,359 in 2005 to $6,325 in 2009. The percentage drop—66%—was the largest among all racial and ethnic groups.
Source: Social Security Administration.
Participants Age by Year Born
Hispanic Household Wealth Fell by 66% from 2005 to 2009
Published July, 2011
Undocumented Families in California
Over a quarter (38.1%) of undocumented immigrants live in California. 80% of undocumented immigrants in the U.S. emigrated from Latin American countries.
In 2011, the populations of foreign born Mexican, Salvadoran, and Guatemalan people was:
El Salvador (1,168,000),
Our pool was composed of 6 Salvadoran origin and 4 Guatemalan origin participants.
Pew Hispanic Center tabulations of 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)
Central American Immigrant Caregiving in Los Angeles:
65 yr. 2 m.
Salvadoran Immigrant Networks in America
by Cecilia Menjívar
Menjívar states that cultural norms expect the children to take care of parents, and such expectations are accompanied with obedience and respect. (Pg. 196)
She finds that material conditions of the relatives shape exchanges with older immigrants in important ways. (Pg. 197)
"Immigration alters age-related expectations, for it reshapes access to the resources, albeit scarce, that people have available. Thus such expectations and the dynamics in which they are embedded are not static." (Meníjvar, 195)
expressed a highly flexible sentiment towards their expectations of their own children reciprocating caregiving. Most
valued their independence, so long as their children had stability or were achieving academically or financially.
There was no significant evidence of a
well-being having a correlation with their expectations of their children's caregiving. However,
three of five
provided continuous caregiving to their living parent(s), while
one of five
expressed a strong regret for not being able to provide caregiving to their parent. In the remaining case, caregiving was handled by other family members.
Regardless of the
economic status, they continued to express a strong willingness to help their children, whether monetarily, or through caregiving.
even continued to support children, and in some instances, nieces and/or nephews, regardless of their residence (U.S. or origin country).
who have a
two were Adults > 35 yrs
, one was a
age 17. One child and one niece experienced financial and social hardships. These Participants expressed anxiety about their limited ability to provide caregiving.
Access to hospitals for preventive care is correlated to immigrant status.
who received Resident status after 1996 live in a far more precarious state, are more vulnerable to hardships, and are less able to provide caregiving to even their nearest loved ones.
These are preliminary findings based on coded data and word aggregate analysis. A comparative analysis of all Arc Visualizations is yet to be complete.
Coding for low vulnerability retirees is needed as a control sample. I hypothesize that dependencies are less dispersed in pension-holding, insured, citizen retirees.
Perception of Aging and Sense of Well-being Among Latino Elderly
by Yewoubdar Beyene, Becker, & Mayen
"When asked about their views on aging, over two-thirds of the Latino elders in the study expressed positive attitudes toward aging. Participants' feelings of well-being were influenced by the type of family interaction and sense of fulfillment that they had a culturally defined place in their family"
"Those who expressed unsatisfactory family relations defined their health status as poor even if their health problems were minor. They felt lonely, and perceived old age as a very sad phase of their life."
(Beyene Et Al., 160)
Each interview was processed through a custom-scripted programming tool that aggregated word data into word clouds (omitting articles and pronouns so as to best mine for concepts), which allowed for weighted concepts to emerge and be searched.
These interviews were further categorized using G.A.T.E. (General Architecture for Text Engineering) to find basic geographic and demographic information of the data pool.
Renderings of Word Clouds
Interview 2 + 4 (Adjusted for Marriage)
Interview 5 + 8 (Adjusted for Marriage)
All Data, Raw Interviews (Adjusted for Concepts)
"No la verdad que a mi eso fue otra cosas de que yo ahora me arrepiento porque yo nunca pude ahorrar dinero."
Location: 81 Line: 923
"Aquí nunca les ajaban nada, entonces tuvimos que ir a Tijuana y allá se dieron cuenta que tenia un virus que da los productos lactados y que eso lo había contraído en una ida a Guatemala, por comer queso y crema de allá."
Location: 5 Line: 1129
“Ella tiene a su familia aquí y le gustaría estar aquí pero dice, 'si fuera en Guate pues también me gustaría vivir mis últimos días en Guate pues soy de haya.' Pero tenemos q estar preparados económicamente para esas cosas.”
Location: 16 Line: 2854
"Uno de mis suenos, si llegara a trabajar es, estudiar para chef, no necesariamente tener mi restaurant si no que tener, no se, irle a servir a alguien, o cocinarle alguien, a mi propia familia, es uno de mis sueños no cumplidos."
Location: 185 Line: 2621
Pues yo ahora quiero entrar al programa .
Tengo muchas metas que no se si voy a lograr porque quiero esto de la capacitación de la cuidada de acianos, quiero otra ves a la computadora a ver si se me queda .
Cosas así .
Digo yo mejor momento así digo yo. En este año en tal mes, voy a estar trabajando. Yo me pongo que estoy trabajando. Pero como si no salgo a buscar el trabajo, como voy a decir que estoy trabajando. Me forme una meta dije hoy en este 2013 yo voy a ir al salvador. No puedo. Entonces porque tenemos que primero aprender para agarra el camino y decir “hoy si lo puedo hacer porque lo puedo hacer esto” porque si es solo como yo pienso y no estoy buscando, no se abre .
No pues ahorita yo lo que no puedo es trabajar por eso que los días que voy a diálisis uno sale muy mal de eso. Es un tratamiento muy duro. Ya si dios quiere que me hagan mi diálisis yo espero, porque soy gente que no estoy acostumbrado a estarme en casa…Pero yo de sentarme en la cama a llorar ahí en las madrugadas porque de sentirme invalido, sentirme que uno no puede hacer nada es duro para mi. No poder ayudarle a mi mama a mandarle unos centavitos, eso para mi es duro .
Yo horita estoy enfermo, recibo diálisis, tengo 16 meses de que me dejaron de trabajar mis riñones…Pero si no fuera porque no tengo mi buen seguro, no tuviera beneficios ni de mi medicina y todo .
El mismo gobierno me retiro ya, hace tres, hace dos años me retiraron y me dieron el seguro social y me dan mis centavos cada mes. Pues si es poco pero por lo menos mi renta, mi comida ayuda.
Mapping of Caretaking and Dependency
Participant #2 - Coded Father
Participant's Year Migrated, Current Residence & Home.
is the act or ability to regularly provide or help a loved one (or individual).
is a service or resource provided by an individual, group, or institution that helps a person.
Some dependencies can create potential
to hardships for an individual or family. Some dependencies stem from social and/or economic hardships, while others can snowball into additional hardships.
We can gain an understanding of an individual or family's vulnerabilities by looking at the well-being of participants through their expressed dependencies and caregiving capacities.
Demographics of Participants
Amend the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996
Enable youth to qualify for CHIP (Child Health Insurance Program)
Mount a campaign against the Affordable Care Act;
Grassroots organizing of Elders/Retiree + Medical Orgs. (Doctors without Borders)
Benefits Medical & Clinics by receiving more money.
Community / Immigrant Service Orgs can establish/improve partnerships with clinics (Venice Family Clinic) to wield campaign
Targeted Street Actions & Performances
Connect with Local 11, AFLCIO
Explore Self-Employment insurance strategy.