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Introduction to Speech
Transcript of Introduction to Speech
Rhetorical Situation - any type of communication used to modify the perspective of at least one other person Occasion - The setting and circumstances of a speech
Occasions can range from everyday events, such as a staff meeting with colleagues in the company conference room or a meeting of a club at school, to special events. Note: Unlike writing an essay, when giving a speech you CANNOT forget your audience. It is important to identify who your audience is prior to writing and giving your speech. It is also important to decide what & how it is you want your audience to feel/respond while writing your speech. The message shapes the situation and the situation should also shape the message. Think about your purpose in giving your speech and specifically what words can convey the emotions/reactions you want from your crowd. When crafting your speech think about:
1. Purpose -
- what is your audience supposed to learn/feel?
- do you want them to learn something?
- do you want to remind them of something they already believe so they are more aware of it and how it will affect them?
- is your goal to make the audience see the humor/seriousness of a topic?
- do you want them to pay attention to something they might ignore?
- are you trying to change their views?
- do you want them to take action? 2. Thesis -
Just like in an essay
your speech needs to address
a topic in an interesting way.
BAD: I am going to talk about computers.
GOOD: Computers have changed how I study. PLANNING ORGANIZING 1. Identify your audience
2. Plan your speech
3. Write a few thesis statements
4. Focus on word choice
to move your audience
5. Outline your speech
6. Find solid examples Introduction:
1. Get audience's attention
2. State thesis
3. Preview development of speech
- Narratives (story telling)
- Expert opinions
Organize Body Paragraphs
- Time (chronological)
- Spatial (locational)
- Cause - Effect
- Problem - Solution Conclusion:
1. Draw ideas together so they are memorable
2. "Note of finality"
- restate idea (complete circle)
- draw on claims stated in body PHRASING & TONE Revise & Review
1. Word choice -
pick words that evoke emotion or have connotated meanings.
2. Practice your pace and pausing.
- are there areas you want to speak louder/softer/slower/faster for impact
- if you have humorous moments - save space for laughter
- mark places to pause for audience reaction
The audience judges quickly.
They have reactions that are
- long lasting
- impact behavior Ethos - How the audience perceives the speaker
Think about: Perceptions of--
The speaker has a variety of
responsibilities to the audience:
1. Respect the audience
- Do not mislead listeners about
your purpose or conceal your motives.
- Understand the audience may be
- Do not insult their intelligence or judgement
2. Meet listeners where they are
- phrases such as "I understand that you have reservation about..."
show the audience you have thought about their feelings
3. Make sure your message is worth listening to **Important note about authentic work -
It is important to write your own
speech and to credit those you've borrowed from. Taking Responsibility:
All speeches have consequences.
For example, a listener might repeat an amusing anecdote you told, or they might feel connected to people mentioned in your speech.
Additonally, your words have power.
You need to make sure that you
understand and are ready to accept the
consequences of your words and the
responses they may evoke
from your audience. Definition:
Feedback- How the audience responds
As you watch each of the following graduation speeches, think about HOW the audience responds to:
1. How do DIFFERENT MEMBERS of the audience (different ages, student/teacher/administrator) react to these speakers?
2. What is effective/ineffective in each speakers' BODY LANGUAGE?
3. What is effective/ineffective in each speakers' CONTENT or message? Why are you giving a speech?
- Teaches the audience something new
- Conveys information or advice that you have
-Shares or illustrates your knowledge
-TEACHES the audience something
Think - Steve Jobs
DON'T: the other guy What we learned from
1. Set the theme
- Make it clear and consistent.
2. "Headlines" set the direction and provide the audience with a reason to listen.
3. Provide the audience with an OUTLINE of where you're going.
4. Open and close your topics with transitions
5. Wow the audience by choosing good words.
6. Sell the experience by being enthusiastic about what your speaking.
7. Make it visual/give 'em a show.
- In powerpoint presentation less is more. Provide images that are memorable.
8. Practice, practice, practice. 2. Inspire
- Shapes, reaffirms or modifies a person's views/beliefs
- Celebrates a sense of identity among people
- Connecting or separating people
- Leading people to action
Think - I Have a Dream
As we watch the clip take notes on how he motivates the audience. • Some examples of special occasions are weddings, funerals, graduations, award ceremonies, inaugurals, retirement dinners.
• Audiences usually have certain views of what is appropriate for a given situation.
• For example, at a graduation ceremony, the audience expects remarks to celebrate the accomplishments of the graduates. Parents would consider it inappropriate for a politician to use the occasion to slip in his own agenda. Occasion will determine
• The length of speech
• The level of formality and the standards of taste and decorum
• whether the primary purpose is to inform, persuade or offer suitable remarks for a special occasion
• Special circumstances require special types of speeches Special Speeches Speech of introduction
• used when introducing a speaker
• objective is to:
establish a welcoming climate
build the upcoming speaker’s credibility
build enthusiasm for speaker and the topic
For the Oscar introductions below, think, who GIVES the most effective introduction. Why?
Speech of presentation
• needed when someone receives a gift, award or some other form of public recognition.
• usually brief (range from one sentence to 5 minutes max)
What IS or IS NOT effective about Reese Witherspoon's Oscar acceptance speech?
• Praise or celebration (graduation, wedding, birth)
• Tribute (eulogy, dedication)
• Objective is to honor or memorialize a person, a group, an institution or an idea.
("This I Believe" speech--NPR)
In a category all its own: a Speech Class Assignment
• Important to fulfill the assignment!
Definition Special Occasions Characteristics 3. Persuade
-Tell the audience what you
-Provide proof/supporting details
-Use language that encourages them to support your point of view or opinion
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4P0smMYhLsg Presentation Tips from Steve Jobs:
Have a theme/headline--it sets the direction for your speech and gives your audience a frame of reference
Make your theme clear and consistent throughout your speech/presentation
Open and close each section of your speech with a clear transition (this makes it easier for the audience to follow and listen!)
Be enthusiastic (think about your word choice!)
Wow your audience (don't go into "presentation mode"--think about "the other guy" we watched)
Make numbers and statistics meaningful to the audience (analogies help "connect the dots")
Make your presentation "visual but simple!" with graphics or media--use very little text and only 1-2 images per slide