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Transcript of Les Miserables!
Life of the
fe of the
While the royals were living extravagantly, the peasants' lives were harder than ever. France was in extreme dept because of the war with England and by helping America with their Revolution. The cost of food increased and many people could not afford bread and had to starve. Also, since neither the nobles nor the clergy paid taxes, it was the peasants/ the Third Estate who had heavy taxes. This directly led to the Revolution. BREAD!
As the nobles and the clergy lived lavishly, the Third estate decided that they've had enough. They had no money and no food. Also, the new philosophies of people like Voltaire and Rousseau inspired people to fight for their own rights.
After the Revolution
The Revolution ended with the death of the king, but freedom was yet to come.
"L'État, c'est moi"
efore the French
In 18th century France, the King was known to be 'Divine'. So, the king could do whatever he wanted to do. Obviously, the French court was soon known for it's lavishness and extravagance.
New Ideas, New Actions
Before and during the Revolution,
was the time of new ideas.
As you all know, if someone dies from catching a cold, it means they were not very healthy from the start. This was exactly what happened in France. The system which made 98% of its people suffer, finally began to change; at a high cost...
Napoleon was a Corsican military genius whom after winning the hearts of the French people by winning the battle with Austria declared himself emperor. He spread his powers all across Europe until he lost in the battle of Waterloo.
After the French Revolution, nothing has really changed. Common people still couldn't vote(you had to pay to vote), Austria and Hungary, who were afraid of another revolution, so they stepped in and put a Bourbon back on the throne, Charles X.
Les Misérables written by Victor Hugo is based on the post- French Revolution years. It shows the life of common French people about 50years after the actual French Revolution. You can see that the situation of the peasants haven't improved much over the years, and the gap between the rich and the poor was as big as ever; and the dream of freedom wasn't quite ready yet.
Storming of the Bastille
Marie Antoinette(age 13)
Back of the Moulin, the watermill cottage built for Marie Antoinette
Voltaire, was a French philosopher who was against the church and for freedom of thought. He also believed that absolute monarchy was, for the most part, good for society. However, he hated injustice, often defending people because they were victims of superstition and bigotry.
Rousseau believed that society needed a social contract- an agreement- in which everyone agreed to abide by certain rules. For example, each citizen would have to agree to what the majority wanted. He believed in what he described as "natural" law, in other words, that people are naturally good that is destroyed by government and modern society.
Reign of Terror
After the death of the king in 1793, the Reign of Terror began. During it's time more than 30,000 men lost their lives to the guillotine. The leader of the Terror was Maximilien Robespierre. He justified the Terror saying "Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible.." However, as Jesus said, “Put your sword back into its place. For all who take the sword will perish by the sword". The Terror ended with the death of Robespierre.
'I am the nation(estate)'
"Is it a revolt?"
"No, sire, it's a
Louis XVI, the Restorer of French Liberty
The Sun King
"I was a queen, and you took away my crown; a wife, and you killed my husband; a mother, and you deprived me of my children. My blood alone remains: take it, but do not make me suffer long."
Marie Antoinette with her Children
"Oh, you were not what was desired, but that makes you no less dear to me. A boy would have been the Son of France, but you, Marie Thérèse, shall be mine."
Marie Antoinette was a young Austrian princess who married Louis XVI. She was beautiful, but no one liked her because everyone thought she spent too much money and didn't care at all about how the people of her kingdom was starving. After the revolution, she was the first victim of the Reign of Terror. She got executed on the Guillotine.
Louis XIV, who was also known as the 'Sun King', began his personal rule of France in 1661. He believed strongly in the 'Divine Right of Kings' and even said "L'État, c'est moi" meaning 'I am the nation'. At the end of the seventeenth century, King Louis XIV's wars began decreasing the royal finances dramatically. This worsened during the eighteenth century. The use of the money by Louis XIV angered the people and they wanted a new system of government.
Louis XVI inherited many problems of France, as it had been battered in the the 7 years war and was in debt by the building of the Versailles and helping America in the Independence War. Louis was a young, shy man who didn't have the ability to go through the problems France would be facing... Very soon.
The Estates General was a meeting of the different classes of French people. However, unlike the English Parliament, the Estates General had no real power, and acted as a advisory body to the king. The Estates General of 1789 was the first meeting since 1614.
It is the music of a people
Who will not be slaves again!
When the beating of your heart
Echoes the beating of the drums
There is a life about to start
When tomorrow comes!
Do you hear the people sing?
Singing the song of angry men..
It is the music of a people who will not be slaves again.
"Join in the fight that will give you the right to be free!"
"I do not agree with what you have to say,
but I'll defend to the death your right to say it."
Montesquieu believed that the ruler had to work with elected parliaments. His ideas were not so well recieved by the European monarchs, who had little interest in sharing powers with the people.
"A nation may lose its liberties in a day and not miss them in a century"
The people of France didn't really like this King, so he was deposed and the people replaced him with his cousin, Louis- Philippe I. He was disliked because he wasn't elected. Student led groups, like Société des Amis du Peuple. In the spring of 1832, an epidemic broke out and many died, including General Lamarque, the people's hero. On the day of Lamarque's funeral, students revolted. However, they didn't have many supporters so it failed.
Before the Revolution
After the Revolution
Crossroads- a meeting of nations
The Story of the World- by Susan Bauer