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Social Studies Review Project

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James Colgan

on 27 September 2012

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Transcript of Social Studies Review Project

By James Colgan, Joe Elkashash, Eric Mollin, and Anthony Rinaldi China, Japan, And Korea A Timeline of Classical China 1500 B.C.E - 1000 B.C.E Shang Dynasty Shang Dynasty establishes loose control over most settlements within the yellow river valley The Shang Capital of Anyang is Established A writing system is established that makes every written word a picture. First leader known as King Tang, who overthrew the previous tyrannic leader named Jie, in 1675 B.C.E The first major leader of the Shang Dynasty was Tang, the leader of the Shang Tribe who overthrew the previous leading body, the Xia. Major Leaders During Classical China One other major leader of the Shang Dynasty was Zhongding, who was the tenth emporer of the Dynasty. He is known for ensuing a chaos upon the Shang Dynasty Shi Huang Di- Was the first leader of a unified China. He is also known for taking on huge projects that would benefit China for years including such as the Great Wall of China and the creation of the Terracotta Army King Wu of the Zhou dynasty was probably the most prominent of this dynasty. His biggest achievement would probably be defeating the Shang Dynasty in the Battle of Muye. King Wudi of the Han Empire is the most recognized. The reason for this was due mainly to his long-ranging span of power, 54 years at the head of the throne. Major Dynasties of Classical China The Major Dynasties of classical China were as follows, The Shang, Zhou (Pronounced Jo), Qin (Pronounced Chin), the Han, The Tang, and finally The Song. Important Facts To Know!!!! One commonly known fact about Ancient China is that most of the major dynasties formed along the Yellow River. Another main event that happened during Ancient China was the warring states period, which occurred from 481 BCE to 221 BCE. There were 7 warring states, and eventually after many years of fighting the Qin Dynasty won control and began their reign. The First Dynasty to embrace Confucianism was the Han Dynasty, which became accepted as a philosophy until the end of imperial China. Ancient Japanese History Ancient Korean History The Shang Dynasty is overthrown during the reign of the emperor Yin at the battle of Muye by the Zhou. Warring States period. During this period many different city-states fought for control of mainland China. There were many quickly erupting wars and a struggle for power. 500-221 B.C.E Zhou Dynasty 1675 B.C.E-775 B.C.E The first major leader of the Zhou dynasty was King Wu. Another major event that happened during the early stages of the Zhou dynasty was territorial expansion into the branches of the Rong people (The Rongs were a nomadic tribe that lived on the outskirts of China). The reigns of King Yi and King Li of the Zhou dynasty are marked by the invasions of the Rong people into the empire. During the reign of King Li, the Rong's make their first significant victory with the taking of most of Western China before losing the land soon after the takeover. The Spring and Autumn period is what marked the next 300 years as many leaders exchanged power. This also marked the end of the Chinese feudal system of fengjian. The Last major event that occurred during the Zhou Dynasty was the Partitioning of the state of the Jin. This move signaled the beginning of the warring states period Qin Dynasty The main part of this dynasty is highlighted by Shi Huang Di's reuniting of all of China. Some other main events that happened were the reign of the First Emperor of Qin, who started construction on the great wall of China, the destroying of thousands of books and other sources of knowledge and, finally, the building of the terracotta army prior to his death. Han Dynasty This is marked as the beginning of the Han dynasty with the first leader being Liu Bang, who was an emperor. This time period is marked as the reign of Wudi. He is most known for establishing the Confucian Academy, which was made to train imperial bureaucrats. These final events eventually caused the collapse of the Han dynasty. Starting with Wang Mang's attempts at land reform, which was a failure. Following this was the Yellow Turban peasant revolt, which eventually led to the collapse of the Han Dynasty. 361 B.C.E-206 B.C.E 206 B.C.E-8 C.E. Sui Dynasty Imperial examinations are instituted, starting a bureaucratic tradition of scholar-officialdom in China Tang Dynasty Jomon Period The Stone Age Hunter and Gatherers who make jomon pottery inhabit Japan in 600 B.C. 10,000 - 300 B.C. In Shinto, Japan's oldest religion, people identify kami in nature and in such human virtues Yayoi Period Rice cultivation, metalworking, and the potter's wheel are introduced from China and Korea. The era is named "Yayoi" because after the place in Tokyo where wheel-turned pottery was found. 300 B.C. - 300 C.E. 300 - 645 C.E. Kofun Period In uified states there is an emergence of powerful clan leaders. Japan begins contact with Asia mainland Clan rulers are buried in kofun , and are surrounded by haniwa . Japan also adopts Chinese written langauge. Shotoku Taishi begins to shape Japanese society and government more after the pattern of China. He seeks centralization of government. Asuka Period 645 - 710 C.E. There is a beginning of major reforms called Taiki no Kaishin. The goal of this reform was to increase the emperor's power.

There are new aristocratic families the most powerful is the Fujiwara no Kamatari family, they helped push the reforms Nara Period 710 - 794 C.E. Imperial court builds a new capital, modeled after Chang-an in China, in Nara. Though emperors are Shinto chiefs, they make Buddhism the major belief, believing that its teachings will bring about a peaceful society and protect the state. With the adoption of Buddhism as the state religion, its monasteries gain political power. Heian Period 794 - 1185 C.E. The imperial court moves to Heiankyo. The wanted to escape Nara's dominant Buddhist establishment.

Official contact stops with China in 838 Kamakura Period 794 - 1333 C.E. The military government established in Kamakura by Minamoto no Yoritomo. Emperor, as figurehead, remains in Kyoto with the court aristocracy. In 1192 Imperial court confers on Yoritomo the title of Seii Taishogun . Bushi becomes new ruling class. In 1274 and in 1281, Kublai Khan's Mongol invasions are repelled with help of the kamikaze strategy. Defense against these invasions weakens structure of the military government at Kamakura. Muromachi Period 1333 - 1568 C.E. The Muromachi district of Kyoto becomes base for Shogun Ashikaga Takauji's new military government.

In 1467-1568 the Onin no Ran brings disintegration of central government, followed by the Sengoku Jidai.

In 1543 firearms are introduced by shipwrecked Portuguese sailors. Azuchimomoya Ma Period 1568 -1600 C.E. Oda Nobunaga starts process of reunifying Japan after a century of civil war, he is followed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Hideyoshi's attempt to conquer Korea and China is stopped by local resistance. Arts such as painting, monumental decorative designs, and the tea ceremony continue to flourish. Edo Period 1600 - 1868 C.E. Tokugawa leyasu founds new shogunate at Edo.

In 1635 national isolation policy limits
Chinese and Dutch traders to Nagasaki.

By the early 1700s, cities and commerce flourish.

Printing and publication of books increase; education becomes available to the urban population. During the reign of Emperor Yangdi, the Grand Canal was constructed -- a water transport artery that helped promote economic development and unify the country. Emperor Yangdi was also notorious for his cruelty: He killed all four of his brothers and father, Emperor Wendi, for the throne. Because of his cruelty he was hanged which marked the end of the Sui Dynasty established many policies that were later adopted by the Tang Dynasty After almost 300 years of division following the collapse of the Han Dynasty the Sui Dynasty unified China Under Emperor Taizong the national strength and social development reached an unparalleled prosperity - economy and commerce flourished, the social order was stable, corruption never existed in the court and the national boundaries were even open to foreign countries. In 907, Zhu Quanzhong forced Emperor Ai to abdicate and then he ascended to the throne, changed the national title to Liang and moved
the capital city to Kaifeng. That was the end
of the Tang Dynasty Song Dynasty the Song Dynasty was prosperous in many respects of the society. In agriculture, the productive technology was improved which promoted the output of food; in handicraft industry, the division of labor became more detailed which made the handicrafts technology reach an advanced level; Also the earliest paper currency appeared during the Song Dynasty Two of China's four great inventions - typography and compass were both invented and the application of gunpowder also developed rapidly. Yuan Dynasty The Yuan Dynasty enjoyed economic development and prospered in the fields of science and literature. The economy was mainly based on agriculture. The agricultural techniques used increased food output Trade with foreign countries was greatly encouraged following an open policy adopted by the Yuan rulers. In the area of science, astronomy, mathematics and medicine reached a very high level Ming Dynasty In agriculture, both the food output and the implements of
production surpassed that of the Song and Yuan Dynasties. The development of the handicraft industry promoted market
economy and urbanization. The greatest achievements accomplished during this time were on architecture. The Forbidden City in Beijing was crafted this time.
Porcelain making was also relevant during this time, which
contributed to arts of present day. Early Korea originally the first basins of Korean civilization were migrating tribal from from Manchuria,as adapted to their new land,they brought with them early chinese culture,which would influence the region for years to come .being a relativity small land ,the tribes of Korean peninsula often encountered each other ,as such nation states states rose easily ,but war was also frequent. 2333B.C.E. . Supposed founding of Gojoseon, the legendary first Korean state 400 B.C.E.Korea enters into its iron age

108 BCE Break up of the Gojoseon state into the three kingdoms After the collapse of gojoseon many sub states are formed to fill the void,in 300 BCE the jin are established in the southern part of Korean peninsula in 238 BCE the state of buyeo is established in the north 200 BCE the Samhan confederacies are created and 195 BCE Wiman Joseon is established but like many of the early korean states are attacked and destroyed by the chinese The Three Kingdoms Facing the threat of chinese attack ,many of the remaining Korean sub states joined together and formed three new nations, silla, Goguryeo, Baekje,their close proximity to each other ensured long conflict thought out the era 57 CE Traditional date for the founding of Silla in the southeast by Bak Hyeokgeose ,37 BC Traditional date for the founding of Goguryeo in the north by Jumong.
18 CE Traditional date for the founding of Baekje in the southwest by Onjo.

372CE Goguryeo IMPORTS BUDDHISM FROM FORMER QIN OF CHINA, ADOPTS AS OFFICIAL RELIGION

400CE Goguryeo supports Silla with 50,000 troops to repel Wae of Japan.



.

. 553CE Silla attacks Baekje, breaking the alliance.

.632CE Queen Seondeok OF Silla BECOMES THE PENINSULA'S FIRST KNOWN RULING QUEEN

648CE Silla establishes alliance with Chinese Tang.

660CE Baekje falls to the Silla-Tang forces

668CE Goguryeo falls to the Silla-Tang forces. Silla conquers korea .427CE Goguryeo MOVES ITS CAPITAL FROM GUKNAE SEONG TO PYONGYANG

.433 CE Baekje and Silla form an alliance against Goguryeo's aggression

.475CE Goguryeo attacks Baekje and captures Hanseong (modern day Seoul). Baekje moves its capital south to Ungjin (modern day Gongju), and again to Sabi (modern day Buyeo) in 523.

.527CE Silla FORMALLY ADOPTS BUDDHISM

.551CE Silla-Baekje forces attack Goguryeo, Silla captures Seoul. The Silla kingdom After conquering most of the other kingdoms on Korea,silla began to enact major reforms,being the first faction to ever control such a large mass of the peninsula,it is considered the first true Korean nation,it successfully suppresed multiple uprisings by nobles and managed to secure central power for the monarchy, while it often fought with china ,many of its reforms were based of chinese culture and bureaucracy .676CE Silla repels Chinese alliance forces from Korean peninsula, completes unification of much of the Three Kingdoms.

.698CE Former Goguryeo general Dae Joyeong repels Chinese forces from remainder of former Goguryeo territory, founding Balhae as a successor state.

751CE Silla, AT ITS CULTURAL PEAK, CONSTRUCTS SEOKGURAM AND BULGUKSA.

.828CE JANG BOGO ESTABLISHES CHEONGHAEJIN, A MAJOR CENTER OF TRADE WITH CHINA AND JAPAN.

. 892CE Silla begins to lose control of parts of the peninsula as the brief Later Three Kingdoms comes to fruition

. 918CE Founding of Goryeo by Wang Geon.

.926CE Balhae falls to Khitan forces

. 935CE Silla formally surrenders to Goryeoms. End of three kingdoms 2333B.C.E.-195C.E. 57C.E.-668C.E. 676C.E.-935C.E. Final Dynastys 936C.E.-1636C.E. after the fall of the silla kingdom,Goryeo took control of Korea,they squashed all opposition and reformed the culture,by abolishing Korea's slave system and reorganizing the political system,their were also shrewd negotiators and worked well with the mongals, unfortunately they would be the last dynasty to rule Korea unopposed

.936CE Goryeo completes the reunification of the Later Three Kingdoms, absorbing the remainder of Balhae territory

.956CE Emperor Gwangjong FORCES MAJOR LAND AND SLAVERY REFORMS, AND IN 958 IMPLEMENTS CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS

.1233CE The Mongol invasions of Korea begin

. 1234CE Choi Yun-ui's Sangjeong GOGEUM YEMUN IS PUBLISHED, WORLD'S FIRST METAL-BLOCK PRINTED TEXT

.1251CE Goryeo COMPLETES THE TRIPITAKA KOREANA, THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE AND OLDEST INTACT VERSION OF THE BUDDHIST CANON IN CHINESE SCRIPT

.1270CE Goryeo signs a peace treaty with the Mongols, beginning an 80-year period of suzereignty. The Sambyeolcho Rebellion lasts for three more years

.1388 CE General Yi Seonggye, ordered to engage China in a border dispute, turns his troops against the Goryeo court and ends up successfully conquering Korea for himself 1392CE Yi Seonggye IS CROWNED KING, OFFICIALLY BEGINNING THE JOSEON DYNASTY
.
.1396CE CAPITAL MOVED TO HANYANG (MODERN DAY SEOUL)

.1402CE PAPER CURRENCY INITIATED

.1408CE HIGH MILITARY SERVICE EXAMINATION SYSTEM CREATED

.1592CE The Japanese invasion of Korea begins under the command of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The Japanese invasion is called "Im-Jin-Whae-Ran". Admiral Yi Sun-Sin employs the Turtle
ship to repel Japanese forces.

. 1627CE THE FIRST MANCHU INVASION BY CHINA TAKES PLACE,MANCHURIAN FORCES
CONCEAD VICTORY ,PULLOUT OF KOREA AFTER UNFAIR TREATY IS PLACED,KOREAN FORCES ARE extremely weakened

.1636CE THE SECOND MANCHU INVASION TAKES PLACE, KOREA LOSES ,CHINA TAKES OVER KOREA

KOREA KEEPS OFFICAL SOVRENTY ,BECOMES CHINESE TRIBUTE STATE
KOREA THEN ISOLATES ITSELF BY CLOSING ITS BORDERS TO ALL NATIONS BUT CHINA UNTILL AMERICANS AIDED BY PRESSURE FROM JAPAN ,BRITAN AND RUSSIA FORCE OPEN ITS BORDERS .
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