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Social Studies Review Project
Transcript of Social Studies Review Project
There are new aristocratic families the most powerful is the Fujiwara no Kamatari family, they helped push the reforms Nara Period 710 - 794 C.E. Imperial court builds a new capital, modeled after Chang-an in China, in Nara. Though emperors are Shinto chiefs, they make Buddhism the major belief, believing that its teachings will bring about a peaceful society and protect the state. With the adoption of Buddhism as the state religion, its monasteries gain political power. Heian Period 794 - 1185 C.E. The imperial court moves to Heiankyo. The wanted to escape Nara's dominant Buddhist establishment.
Official contact stops with China in 838 Kamakura Period 794 - 1333 C.E. The military government established in Kamakura by Minamoto no Yoritomo. Emperor, as figurehead, remains in Kyoto with the court aristocracy. In 1192 Imperial court confers on Yoritomo the title of Seii Taishogun . Bushi becomes new ruling class. In 1274 and in 1281, Kublai Khan's Mongol invasions are repelled with help of the kamikaze strategy. Defense against these invasions weakens structure of the military government at Kamakura. Muromachi Period 1333 - 1568 C.E. The Muromachi district of Kyoto becomes base for Shogun Ashikaga Takauji's new military government.
In 1467-1568 the Onin no Ran brings disintegration of central government, followed by the Sengoku Jidai.
In 1543 firearms are introduced by shipwrecked Portuguese sailors. Azuchimomoya Ma Period 1568 -1600 C.E. Oda Nobunaga starts process of reunifying Japan after a century of civil war, he is followed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
Hideyoshi's attempt to conquer Korea and China is stopped by local resistance. Arts such as painting, monumental decorative designs, and the tea ceremony continue to flourish. Edo Period 1600 - 1868 C.E. Tokugawa leyasu founds new shogunate at Edo.
In 1635 national isolation policy limits
Chinese and Dutch traders to Nagasaki.
By the early 1700s, cities and commerce flourish.
Printing and publication of books increase; education becomes available to the urban population. During the reign of Emperor Yangdi, the Grand Canal was constructed -- a water transport artery that helped promote economic development and unify the country. Emperor Yangdi was also notorious for his cruelty: He killed all four of his brothers and father, Emperor Wendi, for the throne. Because of his cruelty he was hanged which marked the end of the Sui Dynasty established many policies that were later adopted by the Tang Dynasty After almost 300 years of division following the collapse of the Han Dynasty the Sui Dynasty unified China Under Emperor Taizong the national strength and social development reached an unparalleled prosperity - economy and commerce flourished, the social order was stable, corruption never existed in the court and the national boundaries were even open to foreign countries. In 907, Zhu Quanzhong forced Emperor Ai to abdicate and then he ascended to the throne, changed the national title to Liang and moved
the capital city to Kaifeng. That was the end
of the Tang Dynasty Song Dynasty the Song Dynasty was prosperous in many respects of the society. In agriculture, the productive technology was improved which promoted the output of food; in handicraft industry, the division of labor became more detailed which made the handicrafts technology reach an advanced level; Also the earliest paper currency appeared during the Song Dynasty Two of China's four great inventions - typography and compass were both invented and the application of gunpowder also developed rapidly. Yuan Dynasty The Yuan Dynasty enjoyed economic development and prospered in the fields of science and literature. The economy was mainly based on agriculture. The agricultural techniques used increased food output Trade with foreign countries was greatly encouraged following an open policy adopted by the Yuan rulers. In the area of science, astronomy, mathematics and medicine reached a very high level Ming Dynasty In agriculture, both the food output and the implements of
production surpassed that of the Song and Yuan Dynasties. The development of the handicraft industry promoted market
economy and urbanization. The greatest achievements accomplished during this time were on architecture. The Forbidden City in Beijing was crafted this time.
Porcelain making was also relevant during this time, which
contributed to arts of present day. Early Korea originally the first basins of Korean civilization were migrating tribal from from Manchuria,as adapted to their new land,they brought with them early chinese culture,which would influence the region for years to come .being a relativity small land ,the tribes of Korean peninsula often encountered each other ,as such nation states states rose easily ,but war was also frequent. 2333B.C.E. . Supposed founding of Gojoseon, the legendary first Korean state 400 B.C.E.Korea enters into its iron age
108 BCE Break up of the Gojoseon state into the three kingdoms After the collapse of gojoseon many sub states are formed to fill the void,in 300 BCE the jin are established in the southern part of Korean peninsula in 238 BCE the state of buyeo is established in the north 200 BCE the Samhan confederacies are created and 195 BCE Wiman Joseon is established but like many of the early korean states are attacked and destroyed by the chinese The Three Kingdoms Facing the threat of chinese attack ,many of the remaining Korean sub states joined together and formed three new nations, silla, Goguryeo, Baekje,their close proximity to each other ensured long conflict thought out the era 57 CE Traditional date for the founding of Silla in the southeast by Bak Hyeokgeose ,37 BC Traditional date for the founding of Goguryeo in the north by Jumong.
18 CE Traditional date for the founding of Baekje in the southwest by Onjo.
372CE Goguryeo IMPORTS BUDDHISM FROM FORMER QIN OF CHINA, ADOPTS AS OFFICIAL RELIGION
400CE Goguryeo supports Silla with 50,000 troops to repel Wae of Japan.
. 553CE Silla attacks Baekje, breaking the alliance.
.632CE Queen Seondeok OF Silla BECOMES THE PENINSULA'S FIRST KNOWN RULING QUEEN
648CE Silla establishes alliance with Chinese Tang.
660CE Baekje falls to the Silla-Tang forces
668CE Goguryeo falls to the Silla-Tang forces. Silla conquers korea .427CE Goguryeo MOVES ITS CAPITAL FROM GUKNAE SEONG TO PYONGYANG
.433 CE Baekje and Silla form an alliance against Goguryeo's aggression
.475CE Goguryeo attacks Baekje and captures Hanseong (modern day Seoul). Baekje moves its capital south to Ungjin (modern day Gongju), and again to Sabi (modern day Buyeo) in 523.
.527CE Silla FORMALLY ADOPTS BUDDHISM
.551CE Silla-Baekje forces attack Goguryeo, Silla captures Seoul. The Silla kingdom After conquering most of the other kingdoms on Korea,silla began to enact major reforms,being the first faction to ever control such a large mass of the peninsula,it is considered the first true Korean nation,it successfully suppresed multiple uprisings by nobles and managed to secure central power for the monarchy, while it often fought with china ,many of its reforms were based of chinese culture and bureaucracy .676CE Silla repels Chinese alliance forces from Korean peninsula, completes unification of much of the Three Kingdoms.
.698CE Former Goguryeo general Dae Joyeong repels Chinese forces from remainder of former Goguryeo territory, founding Balhae as a successor state.
751CE Silla, AT ITS CULTURAL PEAK, CONSTRUCTS SEOKGURAM AND BULGUKSA.
.828CE JANG BOGO ESTABLISHES CHEONGHAEJIN, A MAJOR CENTER OF TRADE WITH CHINA AND JAPAN.
. 892CE Silla begins to lose control of parts of the peninsula as the brief Later Three Kingdoms comes to fruition
. 918CE Founding of Goryeo by Wang Geon.
.926CE Balhae falls to Khitan forces
. 935CE Silla formally surrenders to Goryeoms. End of three kingdoms 2333B.C.E.-195C.E. 57C.E.-668C.E. 676C.E.-935C.E. Final Dynastys 936C.E.-1636C.E. after the fall of the silla kingdom,Goryeo took control of Korea,they squashed all opposition and reformed the culture,by abolishing Korea's slave system and reorganizing the political system,their were also shrewd negotiators and worked well with the mongals, unfortunately they would be the last dynasty to rule Korea unopposed
.936CE Goryeo completes the reunification of the Later Three Kingdoms, absorbing the remainder of Balhae territory
.956CE Emperor Gwangjong FORCES MAJOR LAND AND SLAVERY REFORMS, AND IN 958 IMPLEMENTS CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS
.1233CE The Mongol invasions of Korea begin
. 1234CE Choi Yun-ui's Sangjeong GOGEUM YEMUN IS PUBLISHED, WORLD'S FIRST METAL-BLOCK PRINTED TEXT
.1251CE Goryeo COMPLETES THE TRIPITAKA KOREANA, THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE AND OLDEST INTACT VERSION OF THE BUDDHIST CANON IN CHINESE SCRIPT
.1270CE Goryeo signs a peace treaty with the Mongols, beginning an 80-year period of suzereignty. The Sambyeolcho Rebellion lasts for three more years
.1388 CE General Yi Seonggye, ordered to engage China in a border dispute, turns his troops against the Goryeo court and ends up successfully conquering Korea for himself 1392CE Yi Seonggye IS CROWNED KING, OFFICIALLY BEGINNING THE JOSEON DYNASTY
.1396CE CAPITAL MOVED TO HANYANG (MODERN DAY SEOUL)
.1402CE PAPER CURRENCY INITIATED
.1408CE HIGH MILITARY SERVICE EXAMINATION SYSTEM CREATED
.1592CE The Japanese invasion of Korea begins under the command of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The Japanese invasion is called "Im-Jin-Whae-Ran". Admiral Yi Sun-Sin employs the Turtle
ship to repel Japanese forces.
. 1627CE THE FIRST MANCHU INVASION BY CHINA TAKES PLACE,MANCHURIAN FORCES
CONCEAD VICTORY ,PULLOUT OF KOREA AFTER UNFAIR TREATY IS PLACED,KOREAN FORCES ARE extremely weakened
.1636CE THE SECOND MANCHU INVASION TAKES PLACE, KOREA LOSES ,CHINA TAKES OVER KOREA
KOREA KEEPS OFFICAL SOVRENTY ,BECOMES CHINESE TRIBUTE STATE
KOREA THEN ISOLATES ITSELF BY CLOSING ITS BORDERS TO ALL NATIONS BUT CHINA UNTILL AMERICANS AIDED BY PRESSURE FROM JAPAN ,BRITAN AND RUSSIA FORCE OPEN ITS BORDERS .