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The History of Psychology as a Scientific Discipline
Transcript of The History of Psychology as a Scientific Discipline
It studies how a person’s thoughts and actions can change when they are alone, with friends, family or strangers.
Cognitive psychology is the study of learning, memory, language, and problem solving.
The field of cognitive neuroscience includes the study of the brain and nervous system when engaged in cognitive processes.
Humanism, which focuses on free will and the human potential for growth, was developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, among others, and emphasized achieving one’s ideal self.
B.F. Skinner’s operant conditioning of voluntary behavior became a major force in the 20th century. He introduced the concept of reinforcement to behaviorism.
New and developing areas of psychology
Psychology will continue to change as new technologies, are developed, new theories are adopted, and new discoveries are made.
Evolutionary psychology examines potential links between human behavior and Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution.
Positive Psychology recommends shifting the focus of psychology from the negative to strengths, well-being, and happiness.
Biopsychology is the study of the biological bases of behavior. It focuses on hormones, brain chemistry, brain structure, and diseases.
John Watson proposed a science of behavior called behaviorism, which focused on the study of observable stimuli and responses.
Watson demonstrated that a phobia could be learned by conditioning a baby, “Little Albert”, to be afraid of a white rat. Due to the ethical concerns about this study, it would never be replicated.
Sigmund Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis was influenced by the sexually repressed Victorian Age in which he lived.
Freud proposed in his theory of psychoanalysis that the unconscious (unaware) mind controls much of our conscious behavior.
William James proposed a countering point of view called functionalism, which stresses the way in which the mind allows us to adapt (or function).
Functionalism influenced the modern fields of educational psychology, evolutionary psychology, and industrial/organizational psychology.
Four Goals of Psychology
1. Description: What is happening?
2. Explanation: Why is it happening?
3. Prediction: When will it happen again?
4. Control: How can it be changed?
Behavior includes all of our outward actions and reactions
Mental processes refers to all the internal, covert activity of our minds, such as thinking, feeling, and remembering.
A modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person’s behavior than repressed desires.
Freud’s theory is still in use today but reflects less emphasis on repressed desires.
Even those who use his techniques modify them for modern use.
The major modern psychological perspectives
Edward Titchner, a student of Wundt, brought psychology in the form of structuralism to America.
Structuralism was focused on studying the structure of the mind and thought process.
Structuralism died out in the early 20th century.
is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE
Psychology began as a science of its own in Germany in 1879 with the establishment of Wilhelm Wundt’s psychology laboratory.
He developed the technique of objective introspection, which involves the process of objectively examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities.
In 1894, Margaret F. Washburn, a student of Titchener, was the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology, and she published The Animal Mind.
Mary Cover Jones later demonstrated that a learned phobia could be counter-conditioned.
Much of his work was based on Ivan Pavlov’s discovery of classic conditioning.