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Transcript of Tutorial 6
For example, while we shiver when it gets cold, other animals have fur allowing them to withstand these temperatures. Question 1 A) The data on the table below were collected from a bat and a chameleon. Nathanial Abittan
Huseini Bio Salifu
Patricio Vargas Question 2 2. You conduct an experiment to measure gas exchange. A 17g mouse consumes 4.8 ml of oxygen and produces 3.8 ml of carbon dioxide (both volumes are corrected to standard temperature and pressure). Gases, Temperature, and Metabolism: Poikilothermic and Homeothermic Responses Tutorial 6 3b. What other units could be used to measure metabolic rate? c. Which animal (A or B) do you think is the lizard? Explain. d.Determine the lower and upper critical limit of the thermoneutral zone for the bat. Be sure to explain what these terms mean e. What is meant by BMR? What is the BMR for animal A? What is BMR?
Basal Metabolic Rate:
The minimum rate at which energy is used by an organism to simply survive
(Dictionary.com). Difference between BMR and RMR BMR AT REST!!
No Growing RMR So, since not thermoregulating, animal A's BMR must be: .8 ml Oxygen/g/h x 4.8 Cal/ml x 1000g/1 kg =
3840 Cal/kg/h f. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each thermoregulatory profile? Advantages
1)Constant Body Temp.
(important for physiological
processes), while ectotherms
may perform behavioral
2) More consistent ability
to be active
-effects cognitive ability
(Bio Lab Manual) Endotherms (and ectotherms are
the opposite) Disadvantages
(we may have to eat more) Presented by
Groups D & E Benchmarks 1. Be able to define endothermy, poikilotherm, ectothermy, and homeotherm.
2. Understand how to calculate mass-specific MR, RQ and heat production.
3. Analyze the relationships of oxygen consumption (MR) with body T and ambient T.
4. Understand what is meant by BMR.
5. Be able to understand the main concepts of balance equations. Introduction a. Determine the mouse's specific metabolic rate. C. What subtrate(s) is (are) the mouse burning? Table 6.2 Respiratory exchange ratio ratios (R values) during the aerobic catabolism of carbohydrates, Lipids, and proteins. Respiratory exchange Ratios (R values) 1.0 0.71 0.83 http://stuffpoint.com/dogs/image/70348/we-are-family-picture/ http://theos.in/science/what-do-lions-eat-an-elephant/ http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Canada_Goose/id http://mississippicriminaldefenseblog.com/2011/07/11/mississippi-alligator-hunting-laws/ http://www.hdwallpapersdepot.com/clown-fish-pictures.html http://www.nature.org/newsfeatures/specialfeatures/animals/amphibians/strawberry-poison-dart-frog.xml C) reference: Hill's Animal physiology third ed. d. Explain how all three regulatory systems (energy, water, heat) are dependent upon each other. mass specific metabolic rate= http://www.petsrock.co.za/tag/rabbit/ http://k2.kirtland.cc.mi.us/~balbachl/meta.htm CO2 produced per unit gram Time mass specific metabolic rate= 3.89 ml Co2 17 gram 1h e. Explain what would happen if an animal were in : mass specific metabolic rate= f. A gecko consumes 1.3 g/day of insects containing 75% water and an energy content of 25 kcal/gm of oven-dried insect. 30% of the energy is lost in feces and 4% lost in urine.
i. Determine the average daily metabolic rate (ADMR) 0.229 ml g h ADMR = INPUT - OUTPUT
Input = 1.3 g * 25 kcal/g
Output = Feces + Urine
= (32.5 * 0.3) + ( 32.5 * 0.04)
=11.05 kcal /day
ADMR = 32.5-11.05
= 21.45 kcal/day -Joules/minute -mL O /minute 2 -mL CO /minute 2 f. A gecko consumes 1.3 g/day of insects containing 75% water and an energy content of 25 kcal/gm of oven-dried insect. 30% of the energy is lost in feces and 4% lost in urine.
ii. Determine the digestive efficiency. •Fraction of ingested food used in metabolism. A.E = (input - output) / input * 100
= (32.5 -11.05) / 32.5 *100
= 66% [ ] / Question 1: Part (B) / [ / / / / Question 1: Part (D) Question 2: Part (B) [ ] Question 2: Part (D) ] POIKILOTHERM: An organism whose body temperature varies, often matching the temperature of the immediate environment https://sites.google.com/site/caurup/poikilothermic-v--homeothermic HOMEOTHERM: An organism that can maintain thermal homeostasis and keep their body temperature constant https://sites.google.com/site/caurup/poikilothermic-v--homeothermic i. Negative balance
INPUT < OUTPUT
• Results in weight loss, decrease bone density.
ii Positive balance
INPUT > OUTPUT
• Results in weight gain, plaque buildup in arteries. Above: A lab mouse is an example of a homeothermic organism. (http://earthandscience.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/lab_mouse_mg_3158.jpg) Above: A desert snake is an example of a poikilothermic organism. (http://www.picturesdepot.com/wallpapers/206443/desert+snake.html) You conduct an experiment to measure gas exchange. A 17 g mouse consumes 4.8 ml of oxygen and releases 3.89 ml carbon dioxide (at STP).
Determine the mouse’s respiratory quotient (RQ). RQmouse = 3.89 ml/ 4.8 ml = 0.81 You conduct an experiment to measure gas exchange. A 17 g mouse consumes 4.8 ml of oxygen and produces 3.89 ml carbon dioxide (at STP).
What is the mouse's heat production? 4.8 ml*(1 L/ 1000 ml)*(4.8 kcal/ 1 L) = 0.023 kcal
3.89 ml*(1 L/ 1000 ml)*(4.8 kcal/ 1 L) = 0.019 kcal
Mouse’s total heat production = 0.023 + 0.019 = 0.042 kcal -Joules/grams*minute -mL O /grams*minute 2 -mL CO /grams*minute 2 Question 3 Plot the relationships of oxygen consumption (metabolic rate) and body temperature vs. ambient temperature for each animal.
Question 3a Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Foodstuff The mouse exhibit an R value near 0.81, meaning that its cells are mostly oxidizing proteins. Question 6 a. What is a balance equation? A balance equation simply makes energy inputs equal to the energy outputs. b. What are the various components of i) energy, ii) water and iii) thermal balance? Components of energy: BMR+SDA+activity+heat.
Components of water: two hydrogens and one oxygen. Components of thermal balance: metabolic heat, radiation, evaporation, conduction, and transferred heat. c. Write down the Input = Output equations quantifying energy, water, and thermal balance. (Energy) BMR+SDA+activity+heat=E
(Water) Water drank+ metabolized water= eveaporated+excreted
(Thermal Balance) Body temperature= metabolized heat+ heat absorbed+ heat transferred * Regulatory systems are required to maintain homeostasis (constant temperature) in an open system. • Energy input required to generate heat.
– Food intake. • Heat causes loss of body water.
– Respiration • Water regulates body temperature.
– Sweating •ADMR is measured in the wild during normal activity.