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EU Institutions

the European Commission, the Council of EU, the European Parliament (EP), and the European Court of Justice
by

Avenir Cokaj

on 5 April 2011

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Transcript of EU Institutions

The EU INSTITUTIONS By
Avenir Cokaj The EU's decision-making process in general and the co-decision procedure in particular involve three main institutions: The European Commission
The Commission is independent of national governments.
It is the executive-bureaucratic arm of the EU
responsible for generating new laws and policies,
overseeing their implementation,
managing the EU budget,
representing the EU in international negotiations
Its job is to represent and uphold the interests of the EU as a whole. Headquartered in Brussels The Commission's core responsibility is to be the guardian of the treaties It is responsible to make sure all member states adopt the laws and policies for the treaties
It is the only institution that can initiate laws and policies alone. The commission ensures that all EU revenues are collected it also helps on drafting and guiding the EU budget through other institutions. 1) College of Commissioners
2) The President
3) Directorates Generals and Services
4) The Secretariat General
5) A network of committes In its structure the Commission has 5 main elements: The Council of Ministers
It is based in Brussels near the EU Commission Coreper Committe of Permanent Representative for short Coreper is the one which conducts the everyday work of the council In recent years the council got greater influence at the expense of the Commission strengthening the intergovernmental flavor of the EU. General Affairs and External Relations
Economic and Financial Affairs (ECOFIN)
Justice and Home Affairs (JHA)
Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs
Competitiveness
Transport, Telecommunications and Energy
Agriculture and Fisheries
Environment
Education, Youth and Culture Before there were nearly two dozen different technical councils or configurations now there are just 9: Event though the EU Commission has the monopoly on proposing new laws it is the Council and the Parliament that encourage it to investigate and submit for new laws and policies. Elected by the citizens
Since 1979 its members have been directly elected
Elections are held every five years
The latest elections were in June 2009
The present parliament has 736 members from all 27 EU countries.
MEPs do not sit in national blocks, but in seven Europe-wide political groups. The European Parliament (EP) Current President is José Manuel Barroso Jerzy Buzek was elected President of the EP on the 14th of July 2009
and will hold that post for two and a half years (until January 2012). What does Parliament do? it cannot directly introduce proposals for new laws
it cannot raise revenues
it cannot enact laws alone It lacks three of the typical defining powers of a legislature: but ... in collaboration with the it can propose new laws and policies
Parliament exercises democratic supervision over the other EU institutions
it must approve and can remove the Commission
Parliament shares with the Council authority over the EU budget and can therefore influence EU spending. Basically the parliament either shares or cancels the powers of the EU institutions. How is the Parliament's work organized? Where is Parliament based? It is devided in to three cities
Strasbourg (France)
Brussels (Belgium)
Luxembourg - Officially the parliament has it seat in Strasbourg (France).
where monthly plenary sessions are held for 3-4 days
all members of the parliament are present

- Mini-plenaries which are committee metting by a portion of the MEPs
and are usually held in Brussels (Belgium)

- A portion of the administration as is the Secretariat is possitioned in Luxembourg
The Parliament has three main elements: The president which is elected by the MEPs for 2.5 year term

Parliamentary committees (it is a gathering of MEPs to discuss and amend legislative proposals.)

and the MEPs themselves The European Court of Justice based in Luxembourg
created in 1952 It is the juridical arm of the EU.

Its job is to make sure that EU legislation is interpreted and applied in the same way in all EU countries

The Court has the power to settle legal disputes between EU member states, EU institutions, businesses and individuals. Unlike other EU institutions which use primarly English as working language the Court mainly uses French. The court has five main elements:
The Judges
The President of the Court
The Advocates General
The Court of First Instance
and the EU Civil Service Tribunal The Court gives rulings on cases brought before it.
The five most common types of case are:

references for a preliminary ruling;

actions for failure to fulfill an obligation;

actions for annulment;

actions for failure to act;

actions for damages. Unlike the American legal system which is based on its constitution.
The EU legal system is based on treaties. Over all direction for the council is provided by the presidency which is held by a state an not a person.

All member states take turns every six months rotation. This gives each state the opportunity to bring local issues to the agenda. Presidency Once the Commission has proposed a new law the Council in conjunction with the European Parliament is responsible for accepting or rejecting the proposal.

It also has shared responsibility with the EP for approving the EU budget.

The Council is the supporter of the Common Foreign and Security Policy

It has a mix of legislative and executive functions The Council's powers
and responsibilities. It is a forum in which national governments meet to make decisions on EU law and policy.

It represents the member states, and its meetings are attended by one minister from each of the EU’s national governments. What is it? Thank you for your attention European
Commission Law Proposals Decisions Council Parliament implement the Council of EU Commission and
the Council the Parliament (EP) the European Commission EU the European Court of Justice
Full transcript