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Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nervous systems

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tj landry

on 5 May 2011

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Transcript of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nervous systems

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems The main purpose and function of the sympathetic
nervous system or SNS is to allow the body to use
its resources understress which is known as the fight
or flight response. The major body system that is involved with the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system is the nervous system, which is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of animals, and transmit signals between different parts of its body. This is also in many cases thought of as the control system of the body and it's functions. The parasympathetic nervous system or PSNS is the exact opposite of the sympathetic nervous system. For instance if the sympathetic nervous system causes the fight or flight response, than the parasympathetic nervous system does the opposite. Instead of triggering key adrenal glands and putting your body into a state of focus and alertness it causes your body to relax and allows rest and digest to take place. The fight or flight response is a response that your body undegoes in a time of need or great stress. The response is triggered by secretions of the adrenal medulla which are epinephrine which is the dominant secretion (80%) and norepinephrine (20%) of the secretion.The sympathetic nervous system's nuerons are actually what causes the adrenal medulla to release theese because it stimulates the cells within the adrenal medulla which acts as the trigger for the secretion. The process of rest and digest is the process of digestion of food while your body is relaxing and resting not undergoing any kind of physical activity. This typically happens when you aren't doing anything physical and you have just eaten a substantial amount of food (like after thanksgiving dinner). During this process your tidal volume of amount of air intake within breaths decreases along with your cardiac activity involving heart rate. The secretion of saliva and intestnial fluids increase though to help in the digestion of food. Some body systems involved with sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are........ The endocrine system, is a body system which is made up of a series of glands that release thier products or secretions into the blood stream. These secretions are called hormones and they deliver messages throughout the body and cause it to change based on what ever the nervous system tells them to change that will be benefitial to the body. The digestive system. The primary function of the digestive system is to convert foods into simpler molecules that can be absorbed and used by cells of the body. Digestion is a primary function in the process of rest and digest which is caused by the parasympathetic nervous system. and lasty..... Many body systems interact with eachother in order to accomplish task that are essintial for survival. This interaction is called interdependency. Some interdependencies involved with the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system would be..... Digestive system because in the parasympathetic nervous system the nuerons pick up the signal from the brain kind of like a bunch of people picking up radio station from a satellite. Then they are able to tell the lungs to decrease the amount of air intake (tidal volume), decrease the heart rate to lessen the energy comsumption of the heart, and increase the intestinal fluids within the intestine and secretion of saliva in the mouth to help the breakdown of foods. The reason that everything with the exception of the digestive system slows down is because in digestion you want all of the energy concentrated on the digestion, so your body is able to break more food down and recieve the nutrients quicker. Other than the digestive system there is....... The endocrine system. The reason being because in the sympathetic nervous system when your body is in a fight or flight situations the nuerons from the SNS stimulate the adrenal mendulla (an organ in the endocrine system) that releases or secretes two types of hormones. The hormones secreted are epinphrine also more commonly known as adrenaline that is also a nuerotransmitter that when activated or released it causes a rapid increase of heart rate, contraction of blood vessels, the dialation of air passages to the lungs, and dialation of pupils for more hieghtend vision. The other hormone is norepinephrine, which too is a nuerotransmitter, and the main function of it is to maintain sugar,blood pressure, and heart rate levels. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems effect homeostatis because...... Homeostatis is a process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal enviroment, and it is for that reason that it affects the homeostatis of the body because when the SNS or PSNS take over they change the state in which the body regularly functions in this case its an increase of heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing for SNS, and a decrease in breathing, heart rate, and increase of saliva and intestinal fluids for PSNS in the body. These processes of fight or flight and rest and digest aren't just present in humans and the ways thier bodies react They are also found in ANIMALS TOO!!!! Some examples of this would be like with aniamls and how they react such as a lion invading another lions territory. The lion who owns the territory will naturally strike back to defend his land and then it is up to the invading lion wether or not he wants to stay and fight if so then his adrenal mendulla will be activated by the SNS and he will fight till he can't go on any longer. This is very common for animals to do this with mating too. For instance if one deer wants a specific female as another deer they will fight for them and there adrenaline will kick in. An example in which parasympathetic nervous system takes place would be when right before a bear goes into hibernation they tend to eat a whole lot of food. After they are done with they're continous amount of eating they wil lay down and go to sleep for weeks at a time to out-last the winter. While they are sleeping PSNS activates the digestion of the food by increasing saliva and intestinal fluids of the stomach, then decrease the heart rate and tidal volume or air intake. For that reason when bears awake from they're deep sleep they are extremely hungry because the food they ate was digested. Current research going on in the world of nuero science would be... Like the interactions beween sympathetic nerve fibers associated with blood vessels with in breast tumors. The reason they are currently researching this is so they can determine if the sympathetic nerve fibers influence the effectiveness of antiangiogenic therapy which shrinks tumors by destoying tumor blood vessels. The thing they can't figure out is that why whenever the therapy is stopped why is it that the blood comes back along with the aggressive tumor growth. They are trying to identify new therapeutic targets that improve current antiangiogenic therapies by promoting long-term inhibition of tumor vascularization. This would keep the tumor from coming back at such a rapidly growing dangerous pace and the tumor would be less harm full to the body. Other research includes............. The effect of a hot tub on the parasympathetic nervous system. They are discovering by puting test subjects of all ages into a hot tub with the temperature of 102 degrees fahrenheit that is it diminishing the amount of SNS in the body and allowing more PSNS into it. This benefits people because it stablizes the two nervous systems which allows more peacfullness, relaxation, and calmness into your body. There is also some unfortunate disorders involved with SNS and PSNS, those are..... Parkinson's disease which is a disease that effects Parkinson's disease which is a disease that affects nerve cells, or neurons, in a part of the brain that controls muscle movement and SNS. In Parkinson's disease the nuerons that make the chemical dopamine don't function properly or die which is why your body doesn't have control of your movements at all times because of this your SNS may not be able to function properly and if you have Parkinson's disease than the symptoms you may experience could be trembling of hands, arms, legs, jaw and face,stiffness of the arms, and legs, slowness of movement,and poor balance and coordination. The simple task in time become harder and harder to complete from Parkinson's and normally people don't get it untill there over the age of 60. There is no cure for this disease but there are medicines that can help the symptoms dramatically. Also there is a syndrome called..... Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), or also known as Causalgia, Reflex sympathetic dystrophy which is typically an uncommon nerve disorder.It normally happens after an injury, either to a nerve or to tissue in the affected area. After the injury it causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, and legs or the feet.Doctors till this day still dont understand what exactly causes this syndrome but they do know that it affects the SNS. The symptoms in the affected area are normally, dramatic changes in temperature and color, intense burning pain, and extreme skin sensitivity. For the reason that the cause is unknown they are unable to find a cure to it and it becomes worse as time progresses and it goes away at times then comes back like a sort of hives. Some ways that are used for helping yourself get better include relieving the pain, and can include medicines, physical therapy and nerve blocks which does help. And... Citations-
•"Neuroscience for Kids - Autonomic Nervous System." UW Faculty Web Server. Web. 04 May 2011. <http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/auto.html>.
•""Rest & Digest" - Parasympathetic Nervous System." World of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Web. 04 May 2011. <http://human-anatomyphysiology.blogspot.com/2010/03/rest-digest-parasympathetic-nervous.html>.
•"Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: MedlinePlus." National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health. Web. 05 May 2011. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/complexregionalpainsyndrome.html>.
•"BME All Faculty - Biomedical Engineering | University of Rochester." University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester NY. Web. 05 May 2011. <http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/bme/people/faculty/bio/project.cfm?id=232>.
•"Hot Tubs | Nervous System | Physical Health." Hot Tub | SwimSpa | Pool | Water | Charlottesville | Virginia. Web. 05 May 2011. <http://envirosmarte.com/new-research-hot-tubs-improve-nervous-system-and-physical-health/>. Questions-
What- What is the relationship between the nervous and endocrine systems?
SNS because it tris a part of the nervous system and tirgers hormones.
How- How does the intestinal fluids and saliva contribute to digestion?
They contribute to the breakdown of the foods for easier digestion.
Why- Why does the adrenal medulla
secrete hormones?
Because the SNS calls for it and the body needs it in that particular point in time.
Where- Where does the commands to the nuerons come from?
The central nervous system/brain.
When- When does the adrenal mendulla know to secrete the hormones?
When the SNS triggers it by stimulating it. Thank you for watching! Another syndrome is... Now here are some questions for you!
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